November 8 Devotional (2021)


November 8 Commemoration: John Milton, Poet

Almighty Father, who didst move thy servant John Milton to sing Of man’s disobedience and spiritual death, and of the perfect obedience of thy Son Jesus Christ, by which we are restored to life and wholeness: Mercifully grant to us thy servants that we may praise thee according to our abilities, and may always be found obedient to thy will, walking in the footsteps of the same thy well-beloved Son our Savior Jesus Christ; who with thee and the Holy Spirit liveth and reigneth, one God, now and for ever. Amen.


November 8, 2021
Ordinary Time

Today’s Readings: 

  • Psalm 94, God will vindicate the righteous
  • Ruth 1:1-22, The widow’s poverty
  • 1 Timothy 5:1-8, Widows set their hope on God

Invitatory

God is the great Lord * Come, let us adore Him.

Collect

O God, whose blessed Son came into the world that he might destroy the works of the devil and make us children of God and heirs of eternal life: Grant that, having this hope, we may purify ourselves as he is pure; that, when he comes again with power and great glory, we may be made like him in his eternal and glorious kingdom; where he lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen. [1]

Intercession

[2]

Hymn

“As the Bridegroom to His Chosen” by John Tauler
Lyrics:

As the bridegroom to his chosen, 

As the king unto his realm, 

As the keep unto his castle, 

As the pilot to the helm, 

So, Lord, are you to me. 

As the fountain in the garden, 

As the candle in the dark, 

As the treasure in the coffer, 

As the manna in the ark, 

So, Lord, are you to me. 

As the music at the banquet, 

As the stamp unto the seal, 

As the medicine to the fainting, 

As the winecup at the meal, 

So, Lord, are you to me. 

As the ruby in the setting, 

As the honey in the comb, 

As the light within the lantern, 

As the father in the home, 

So, Lord, are you to me. 

As the sunshine in the heavens, 

As the image in the glass, 

As the fruit unto the fig tree, 

As the dew upon the grass, 

So, Lord, are you to me. [3]


Morning Prayer

For Health of Body and Soul

May God the Father bless me, God the Son heal me, God.the Holy Spirit give me strength. May God the holy and undivided Trinity guard my body, save my soul, and bring me safely to his heavenly country; where he lives and reigns for ever and ever. Amen. 

  • Adapted from the Book of Common Prayer [4]

Short Verse

He has told you, O man, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God?

Micah 6:8

Morning Reading

Psalm 94, God will vindicate the righteous

O Lord, you God of vengeance,

you God of vengeance, shine forth!

Rise up, O judge of the earth;

give to the proud what they deserve!

O Lord, how long shall the wicked,

how long shall the wicked exult?

They pour out their arrogant words;

all the evildoers boast.

They crush your people, O Lord,

and afflict your heritage.

They kill the widow and the stranger,

they murder the orphan,

and they say, “The Lord does not see;

the God of Jacob does not perceive.”

Understand, O dullest of the people;

fools, when will you be wise?

He who planted the ear, does he not hear?

He who formed the eye, does he not see?

He who disciplines the nations,

he who teaches knowledge to humankind,

does he not chastise?

The Lord knows our thoughts,

that they are but an empty breath.

Happy are those whom you discipline, O Lord,

and whom you teach out of your law,

giving them respite from days of trouble,

until a pit is dug for the wicked.

For the Lord will not forsake his people;

he will not abandon his heritage;

for justice will return to the righteous,

and all the upright in heart will follow it.

Who rises up for me against the wicked?

Who stands up for me against evildoers?

If the Lord had not been my help,

my soul would soon have lived in the land of silence.

When I thought, “My foot is slipping,”

your steadfast love, O Lord, held me up.

When the cares of my heart are many,

your consolations cheer my soul.

Can wicked rulers be allied with you,

those who contrive mischief by statute?

They band together against the life of the righteous,

and condemn the innocent to death.

But the Lord has become my stronghold,

and my God the rock of my refuge.

He will repay them for their iniquity

and wipe them out for their wickedness;

the Lord our God will wipe them out.

Morning Lesson

“the God who establishes justice”

The term “God of vengeance” here “means ‘the God who establishes justice.’” [29] Thus, Psalm 94 is a prayer for God’s justice to rain down. “It is in the spirit of the petition, ‘Thy kingdom come,’ a cry that God’s righteous rule be established over all men, especially the wicked. The introduction (vv. 1, 2) briefly sets forth the psalmist’s desire; the lament (vv. 3–7) describes how the wicked are acting; the appeal (vv. 8–11) is offered directly to the wicked for their self-correction; and, finally, the confidence section (vv. 12–23) expresses the psalmist’s trust and certainty that the Lord will in fact judge.” [30]

“Final judgment will bring vengeance on those who arrogantly reject the Lord. Meanwhile, we pray that all will see the glory of God’s justice in Jesus on the cross, turn from their wicked ways, and join with us in the life of righteousness, which includes caring for and protecting widows, orphans, and others who are helpless and oppressed. • Lord, help us to pray— even for our enemies! Amen.” [5]


Midday Prayer

Monday: Of the Holy Spirit

Almighty and most merciful God, grant, we beseech thee, that by the indwelling of thy Holy Spirit we may be enlightened and strengthened for thy service; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever. Amen. [6]

Short Verse

But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, open to reason, full of mercy and good fruits, impartial and sincere.

James 3:17
“Naomi and her Daughters”
By George Dawe (1781–1829)

Midday Reading

Ruth 1:1-22, The widow’s poverty

1 In the days when the judges ruled there was a famine in the land, and a man of Bethlehem in Judah went to sojourn in the country of Moab, he and his wife and his two sons. 2 The name of the man was Elimelech and the name of his wife Naomi, and the names of his two sons were Mahlon and Chilion. They were Ephrathites from Bethlehem in Judah. They went into the country of Moab and remained there. 3 But Elimelech, the husband of Naomi, died, and she was left with her two sons. 4 These took Moabite wives; the name of the one was Orpah and the name of the other Ruth. They lived there about ten years, 5 and both Mahlon and Chilion died, so that the woman was left without her two sons and her husband.

6 Then she arose with her daughters-in-law to return from the country of Moab, for she had heard in the fields of Moab that the LORD had visited his people and given them food. 7 So she set out from the place where she was with her two daughters-in-law, and they went on the way to return to the land of Judah. 8 But Naomi said to her two daughters-in-law, “Go, return each of you to her mother’s house. May the LORD deal kindly with you, as you have dealt with the dead and with me. 9 The LORD grant that you may find rest, each of you in the house of her husband!” Then she kissed them, and they lifted up their voices and wept. 10 And they said to her, “No, we will return with you to your people.” 11 But Naomi said, “Turn back, my daughters; why will you go with me? Have I yet sons in my womb that they may become your husbands? 12 Turn back, my daughters; go your way, for I am too old to have a husband. If I should say I have hope, even if I should have a husband this night and should bear sons, 13 would you therefore wait till they were grown? Would you therefore refrain from marrying? No, my daughters, for it is exceedingly bitter to me for your sake that the hand of the LORD has gone out against me.” 14 Then they lifted up their voices and wept again. And Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Ruth clung to her.

15 And she said, “See, your sister-in-law has gone back to her people and to her gods; return after your sister-in-law.” 16 But Ruth said, “Do not urge me to leave you or to return from following you. For where you go I will go, and where you lodge I will lodge. Your people shall be my people, and your God my God. 17 Where you die I will die, and there will I be buried. May the LORD do so to me and more also if anything but death parts me from you.” 18 And when Naomi saw that she was determined to go with her, she said no more.

19 So the two of them went on until they came to Bethlehem. And when they came to Bethlehem, the whole town was stirred because of them. And the women said, “Is this Naomi?” 20 She said to them, “Do not call me Naomi; call me Mara, for the Almighty has dealt very bitterly with me. 21 I went away full, and the LORD has brought me back empty. Why call me Naomi, when the LORD has testified against me and the Almighty has brought calamity upon me?”

22 So Naomi returned, and Ruth the Moabite her daughter-in-law with her, who returned from the country of Moab. And they came to Bethlehem at the beginning of barley harvest.

Midday Lesson

Ruth’s Loyalty to Naomi

“The events of the book [of Ruth] take place in the chaotic era reflected in the book of Judges, when Israel lacked central authority, and ‘everyone did as they saw fit’ (Jdg 21:25)… Not only was Israel embroiled in chaos at this time, but most of the ancient world was as well. The Egyptians, Hittites and Mesopotamians were in general decline; Greece was undergoing political upheaval; and the Sea Peoples (which included the Philistines) were wreaking havoc in the Mediterranean basin. The reasons for these disruptions are difficult to determine, but environmental stresses of some kind in conjunction with a flurry of earthquakes may have contributed to the demise. The deterioration of the major superpowers allowed a number of smaller peoples and states to germinate in the Levant. Among them are the Moabites, Phoenicians, Syrians, Ammonites, Philistines and, of course, the Israelites. famine. Famines were not uncommon in the Levant. Sometimes they could be local as prophesied by Amos (see Am 4:7–8), but the phrase normally implies a wide-spread famine. Several factors could precipitate a famine in addition to lack of rainfall. An adequate amount of rain, but at the wrong time, could destroy the crops. Additionally, plant disease (e.g., Dt 28:21; 1Ki 8:37; Am 4:9; Hab 2:17), insect infestation (e.g., Am 4:9–10; Joel 1) and warfare (e.g., 2Ki 6:24–25; Isa 1:7) could effectively serve as famines. The Bible notes a number of famines, some of which precipitated departures from Canaan—Abraham went to Egypt (Ge 12:10); Isaac sojourned in Gerar (Ge 26:1); and Jacob and his family descended to Egypt (Ge 43–50). Overall, the pattern of famine and plenty in the Levant is unpredictable.” [7]

“Moab was an enemy of Israel, and the Jews were forbidden to have dealings with the Moabites (Dt 23:3-6). Even in time of famine, one is to trust in the Lord rather than flee to the enemy.” [8] Before his death, “Elimelech, whose name means ‘My God is King’ [had] forsaken God and left the covenant community. He exemplifies the faithless Jews, and he died without leaving offspring in Israel.” [9]

[31]

“The hazards of widowhood in antiquity were great. In most rural areas, women would have had little opportunity to pursue independent careers, and therefore overwhelmingly depended upon their husbands for sustenance. Women certainly had significant roles in the household, but these usually did not extend to commercial enterprises, contrary to the idealized description of the noble woman of Pr 31. Upon her husband’s death, the widow normally relied upon her sons for support; if she had none, she might have to sell herself into slavery, resort to prostitution or die. It is in part to prevent this harshness for which the guardian-redeemer legislation exists (Lev 25:39–55). The Mosaic Law was concerned for the widows and the poor (Dt 10:17–18; cf. Ps 68:5; 146:9; Jer 49:11), and issued instructions for their preservation (e.g., Ex 22:22–24; Dt 14:28–29; 24:17–20; 26:12–13; 27:19).” [10]

“In view of the events that followed [Elimelech’s death]— particularly the deaths of Naomi’s two sons—we may infer that she is stripped of all male protection. Her plight, then, would often be connected to that of the orphan and foreigner (e.g., Mal 3:5) and the poor (e.g., Isa 10:2). The lapse of ten years (v. 4) implies that Naomi is past childbearing age, or at least near the end of such, so that her prospect of finding a husband would be significantly reduced. Her decision to return to Bethlehem was the most reasonable option; there she might at least find sustenance by gleaning if no extended family members were to care for her.” [11]

“If the marriages in the narrative followed typical ancient Near Eastern tradition, Naomi probably had married in her mid-teens and had likely borne her two sons by age 20. The sons would have married a little earlier than age 20 to young women similarly in their mid-teens. By the time she decides to return to Judah, Naomi is likely in her mid-40s and Ruth and Orpah are likely in their mid- to late 20s.” [12]

“Naomi, representing the faithful Jews who will accept redemption in Christ, returned from the country of Moab to receive the Lord’s bread (see Jn 6:48). The notion of arising from a state of sin and returning to a loving Father is echoed in Christ’s parable of the Prodigal Son (Lk 15:11-32).” [13]

In verse 8, Naomi told her two daughters-in-law, “Go, return each of you to her mother’s house. May the LORD deal kindly with you, as you have dealt with the dead and with me.” “The OT implies that the mother’s house has to do with preparation for marriage (Ge 24:28, SS 3:4; 8:2). This corresponds to Egypt and Mesopotamia, where the mother was the protector of the daughter and the advisor and supervisor in matters of love, sex and marriage. The suggestion to return to their mother does not primarily encourage seeking legal protection (Ruth’s father is still alive, cf. 2:11), but rather presents the option to have a new family.” [14]

In asking, “Why do you desire to go with me?” (v. 11), Naomi intended “not to prevent them from following her to the Lord, but to challenge their sincerity (see Jn 6:26, 27). [15] Naomi continued, “Have I yet sons in my womb that they may become your husbands?” “The Bible provides specific legislation for family preservation, often called levirate marriage [Dt 25:5–10] —if a man married a woman and he died before there were offspring, his brother would marry the widow and raise up children in the name of the deceased. Since Naomi does not mention the prospect of marrying her husband’s brother, technically, her proposed scenario would not be levirate marriage, since the husband she might hypothetically secure would not, in a patrilineal society, produce brothers to her deceased sons. Instead she emphasizes how futile was any prospect of securing husbands for her widowed daughters-in-law, in contrast to the implied resources of their ‘mother’s home'” (v. 8). [16]

In verses 12-13, Naomi said, “Turn back, my daughters; go your way, for I am too old to have a husband. If I should say I have hope, even if I should have a husband this night and should bear sons, 13 would you therefore wait till they were grown?” “Childbearing was seen as necessary to perpetuate one’s life beyond death, and is symbolic of eternal life. Naomi had grown too old for childbearing.” [17]

“Orpah had declared her intention to follow Naomi to the Lord (v. 10), but being confronted with the realities of that life, she returns to her people and her gods (see Jn 6:66). Her kiss is metaphorically a kiss of betrayal. By contrast, Ruth followed her, forsaking all she knew and accepting the Lord. In doing so, Ruth prefigures the Gentile Church and all who would be saved.” [18]

In verse 16, Ruth said to Naomi, “Do not urge me to leave you or to return from following you. For where you go I will go, and where you lodge I will lodge. Your people shall be my people, and your God my God.” “The national god of Moab was Chemosh. Mesha, a later Moabite king, commented that Chemosh had been angry with the land and permitted Omri to subdue the country. Chemosh was an ancient god in the Levant for whom we have evidence as early as the late third millennium BC at Ebla. We have no evidence of his perceived character at the period, although he may have been a god of war similar to the Mesopotamian god, Nergal. Ruth’s statement suggests that she will adopt the worship of Naomi’s people in Bethlehem. This is an expression of her loyalty to Naomi, and it would be the general practice of someone joining a new family and community in a new area. Though the high God of the region is Yahweh, the syncretism of the judges period would likely have featured gods at various family and clan levels. Ruth would not be able to continue worshiping her gods (Chemosh or any others), for there would not have been sacred places dedicated to them. Ruth’s decision is born of loyalty to Naomi, not necessarily of any theological convictions about Yahweh as the one true God. However, it is enough of a foothold for Yahweh to reveal himself.” [19]

“Ruth’s commitment to leave her family for a land where she apparently has never been, potentially totally isolated from her own kin, commands admiration and respect. While she has probably become familiar with some Hebrew customs and beliefs, to saturate herself in the different culture has dimensions that one can only appreciate by experience. Some suggest that her loyalty surpasses that of Abraham, since he was called by divine direction (Ge 12:1–5) and Ruth was not. To most Westerners, there is usually little emotional trauma in being buried away from the family plot. Such a casual approach to death was unknown to the people of ancient Canaan. The Bible often refers to death as being gathered to one’s people (e.g., Ge 25:8, 17; 35:29; 49:33; Nu 20:24, 26; Dt 32:50), and Jacob and Joseph gave specific instructions that their remains be conveyed to the family homeland (Ge 49:29–32; 50:24–26). These requests are apparently not unique to the Israelites. Archaeology has uncovered a number of cemeteries, many of which yield evidence that the deceased had passed away elsewhere and their bones had been interred in the cemetery sometime after death and decomposition had occurred. Our text gives no indication that Naomi had brought her husband’s and sons’ remains back to the family plot in Bethlehem, but if she did not, she likely was returning with them on this journey.” [20]

“A proper burial was a matter of great concern for people in the ancient world. Goals were to keep the deceased connected to the community of living relatives and descendants as well as to help them transition into the community of the ancestors who had already died. The maintenance of the dead was a common practice as implied in the often elaborate tombs designed to accommodate the extended family. Continued care for the dead was a common practice in the ancient world and was believed to affect the afterlife of the deceased.” [21]

“The separation between Jew and Gentile would one day be abolished in Jesus Christ (Eph 2:14). The unbreakable alliance of Naomi and Ruth as the two of them went until they came to Bethlehem prefigures that day.” [22]

“Lamenting in Bethlehem over the loss of her children in Moab, Naomi prefigures Rachel, who would later lament over the loss of her children to Babylon (Jer 31:15) and over the children slain by Herod (Mt 2:16–18). See 4:11.” [23]

“The beginning of barley harvest was in April. It would have occurred at about the time of the Passover, and thus of the crucifixion and Resurrection of Christ. Jesus Himself refers to the new covenant as a time of harvest (Mt 9:37, 38; Jn 4:35). Ruth is accepted at this time, showing that the Gentiles would be received into the Church.” [24]

“Ruth, Naomi, and Orpah” 
By Veronica McDonald

Eventide Prayer

Lighten our darkness, we beseech thee, O Lord; and by thy great mercy defend us from all perils and dangers of this night; for the love of thy only Son, our Savior, Jesus Christ. Amen. [25]

Short Verse

If my people who are called by my name humble themselves, and pray and seek my face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven and will forgive their sin and heal their land.

2 Chronicles 7:14

Eventide Reading

1 Timothy 5:1-8, Widows set their hope on God

1 Do not rebuke an older man but encourage him as you would a father, younger men as brothers, 2 older women as mothers, younger women as sisters, in all purity.

3 Honor widows who are truly widows. 4 But if a widow has children or grandchildren, let them first learn to show godliness to their own household and to make some return to their parents, for this is pleasing in the sight of God. 5 She who is truly a widow, left all alone, has set her hope on God and continues in supplications and prayers night and day, 6 but she who is self-indulgent is dead even while she lives. 7 Command these things as well, so that they may be without reproach. 8 But if anyone does not provide for his relatives, and especially for members of his household, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever.

Eventide Lesson

Support for those in the Christian community 

“Because the Christian community is a family that forms part of Christ’s Mystical Body, Paul advised Timothy to treat everyone like a family member, respecting the position of elders as well as the relative innocence of those who are younger. Implicitly, everything must be done in a spirit of familial love.” [26]

“Widows, particularly those who had no children or close relatives, were largely dependent upon the Church for their support. They would often form a group within the Christian community, vowing not to remarry and dedicating themselves to charitable work and prayer. Paul drew a distinction here between ‘real widows,’ who were older, had no family, and had shown themselves to be good and virtuous Christians, and ‘younger widows,’ who perhaps were not mature enough to commit themselves to celibate service and, therefore, should remarry. Paul was emphatic here about the obligation of children and other relatives to provide for widows within their families.” [27]

Compline Prayer

Lord Jesus, be mindful of your promise. Think of us, your servants, and when we shall depart, speak to our spirits these loving words: “Today you shall be with me in joy.” O Lord Jesus Christ, remember us, your servants who trust in you, when our tongues cannot speak, when the sight of our eyes fails, and when our ears are stopped. Let our spirits always rejoice in you and be joyful about our salvation, which you, through your death, have purchased for us. Amen.

By Miles Coverdale [28]


Citations:

[1] Episcopal Church. (1979). Collects. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 235). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

[2] Forward Movement. (2013). Intercessions. In Prayers for All Occasions (Kindle ed., pp. 618). Cincinnati, OH: Forward Movement.

[3] Tickle, P. (2000). November. In The divine hours: Prayers for Prayers for Autumn and Wintertime (Kindle ed., vol. 2, p. 199). New York, NY: Image Books.

[4] Episcopal Church. (1979). The Ministration of the Sick. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 460). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

[5] A., E. E. (2016). Psalms. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 3778). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

[6] Episcopal Church. (1979). Collects. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 200). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

[7] Keener, C. S., Walton, J. H., & Matthews, V. A. (2016). Ruth. In NIV Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible (Kindle, pp. 1587-1588). essay, Zondervan.

[8] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). Ruth. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 348). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[9] Ibid. 8

[10] Keener, C. S., Walton, J. H., & Matthews, V. A. (2016). Ruth. In NIV Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible (Kindle, pp. 1589). essay, Zondervan.

[11] Ibid. 10

[12] Ibid. 10

[13] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). Ruth. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 348). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[14] Keener, C. S., Walton, J. H., & Matthews, V. A. (2016). Ruth. In NIV Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible (Kindle, pp. 1589). essay, Zondervan.

[15] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). Ruth. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 348). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[16] Keener, C. S., Walton, J. H., & Matthews, V. A. (2016). Ruth. In NIV Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible (Kindle, pp. 1589-1590). essay, Zondervan.

[17] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). Ruth. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 348). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[18] Ibid. 17

[19] Keener, C. S., Walton, J. H., & Matthews, V. A. (2016). Ruth. In NIV Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible (Kindle, pp. 1590). essay, Zondervan.

[20] Ibid. 19, P. 1590-1591

[21] Ibid. 19, P. 1591

[22] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). Ruth. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 348). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[23] Ibid. 22

[24] Ibid. 22

[25] Episcopal Church. (1979). Daily Office, Rite II. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 111). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

[26] Cole, J. (Ed.). (2015). 1 Timothy. In Didache Bible: With commentaries based on the Catechism of the Catholic Church (Kindle ed., p. 3644). Downers Grove, IL: Midwest Theological Forum, Ignatius Press.

[27] Ibid. 26

[28] Occasional Prayers. (2019). In The Book of Common Prayer (PDF). The Anglican Church in North America. Retrieved at: http://bcp2019.anglicanchurch.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/56-Occasional-Prayers.docx

[29] Cole, J. (Ed.). (2015). Psalms. In Didache Bible: With commentaries based on the Catechism of the Catholic Church (Kindle ed., p. 1615). Downers Grove, IL: Midwest Theological Forum, Ignatius Press.

[30] Psalms. (2017). In The King James study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 2730). Nashville, TN, USA: Thomas Nelson.

[31] Keener, C. S., Walton, J. H., & Matthews, V. A. (2016). Moab [Map]. In NIV Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible (Kindle, pp. 1587). essay, Zondervan.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Create your website with WordPress.com
Get started
%d bloggers like this: