October 4 Devotional (2021)

A prayer inspired by Saint Francis of Assisi, who the church remembers on October 4th

Most high, omnipotent, good Lord, grant unto thy people grace To renounce gladly the vanities of this world; that, following the way of blessed Francis, we may for love of thee delight in thy whole creation with perfectness of joy; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

October 4, 2021
Ordinary Time

Today’s Readings: Psalm 112 / Deut 22:13-30 / 1 Cor 7:1-16

Invitatory

Worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness: Come let us

adore him.

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, 

* and to the Holy Ghost. 

As it was in the beginning, is now, 

* and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

Collect of the Week

Almighty and everlasting God, you are always more ready to hear than we to pray, and to give more than we either desire or deserve: Pour upon us the abundance of your mercy, forgiving us those things of which our conscience is afraid, and giving us those good things for which we are not worthy to ask, except through the merits and mediation of Jesus Christ our Savior; who lives and reigns with you and the

Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen. [1]

Hymn: “Daniel Prayed”


Morning Prayer from The Great Litany

That it may please thee to grant to all the faithful departed eternal life and peace,

We beseech thee to hear us, good Lord. [2]

Short Verse

Every good and perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of the heavenly lights, who does not change like shifting shadows.

James 1:17

Morning Reading: Psalm 112

Happy are those who fear God

Praise the Lord!

Happy are those who fear the Lord,

who greatly delight in his commandments.

Their descendants will be mighty in the land;

the generation of the upright will be blessed.

Wealth and riches are in their houses,

and their righteousness endures forever.

They rise in the darkness as a light for the upright;

they are gracious, merciful, and righteous.

It is well with those who deal generously and lend,

who conduct their affairs with justice.

For the righteous will never be moved;

they will be remembered forever.

They are not afraid of evil tidings;

their hearts are firm, secure in the Lord.

Their hearts are steady, they will not be afraid;

in the end they will look in triumph on their foes.

They have distributed freely, they have given to the poor;

their righteousness endures forever;

their horn is exalted in honor.

The wicked see it and are angry;

they gnash their teeth and melt away;

the desire of the wicked comes to nothing.

Morning Lesson

A song of praise for Christ and His Church

Psalm 12 is “a praise song that blesses the Lord Jesus Christ and His Church. He is the Man who is blessed. His seed, the generation of the upright, and his house refer to the Church. He gives the gift of righteousness to the Church and teaches the Church by example how to live in this righteousness. But the sinner, the devil, is angry with Christ and His Church; therefore, the desire of this sinner and the desire of sinners like him shall perish.” [3]

Psalm 112 Commentary from the Early Church

Verses 6-9 

“Today we are celebrating the memory of a just man. So in this sermon . . . I must say something about what we have been singing to the Lord with full and harmonious hearts and voices: “The just person will be held in eternal memory . . .” [v. 6]. The psalm, clearly, was read in order to remind us what good purpose is served by this sort of solemn celebration. The reason, you see, that holy church celebrates every year the anniversary of the last days of the just and holy people who have departed from this world is not thereby to increase the honor enjoyed by these just persons but to set before us an example to be imitated.” 

  • Augustine, Sermon 335l.i [4]

Verse 9 

“[B]eloved brothers, when we recognize our kind Redeemer and reflect on our price, let us not love “the world or the things that are in the world” [1Jn 2:15]; but according to the apostle, “having food and sufficient clothing, with these let us be content” [1Tm 6:8]. Let us seek the use of what is necessary but not have greedy desires. If we lack riches, let us not seek them in the world by evil deeds or unjust gains. However, if we have them, let us transmit them to heaven by good works, so that there may be fulfilled in us what is written: [here]; with the help of our Lord Jesus Christ, who lives and reigns forever and ever. Amen.”

  • Caesarius of Arles, Sermon 141.6 [5]

A Third Century Prayer for Light

O God of Light, Father of Life, Giver of Wisdom, Benefactor of our souls, who gives to the fainthearted who put their trust in You those things into which the angels desire to look; O Sovereign Lord, who have brought us up from the depths of darkness to light, who have given us life from death, who have graciously bestowed upon us freedom from slavery, and who have scattered the darkness of sin within us, do You now also enlighten the eyes of our understanding, and sanctify us wholly in soul, body, and spirit. AMEN. 

—Liturgy of St. Mark [6]

Midday Intercession

[7]

Short Verse

“Do all you can to preach the gospel and if necessary use words!”

St. Francis of Assisi

[8]

Midday Reading: Deuteronomy 22:13-30

Laws about sexual relations

13 “Suppose a man marries a woman, but after sleeping with her, he turns against her 14 and publicly accuses her of shameful conduct, saying, ‘When I married this woman, I discovered she was not a virgin.’ 15 Then the woman’s father and mother must bring the proof of her virginity to the elders as they hold court at the town gate. 16 Her father must say to them, ‘I gave my daughter to this man to be his wife, and now he has turned against her. 17 He has accused her of shameful conduct, saying, “I discovered that your daughter was not a virgin.” But here is the proof of my daughter’s virginity.’ Then they must spread her bed sheet before the elders. 18 The elders must then take the man and punish him. 19 They must also fine him 100 pieces of silver, which he must pay to the woman’s father because he publicly accused a virgin of Israel of shameful conduct. The woman will then remain the man’s wife, and he may never divorce her.

20 “But suppose the man’s accusations are true, and he can show that she was not a virgin. 21 The woman must be taken to the door of her father’s home, and there the men of the town must stone her to death, for she has committed a disgraceful crime in Israel by being promiscuous while living in her parents’ home. In this way, you will purge this evil from among you.

22 “If a man is discovered committing adultery, both he and the woman must die. In this way, you will purge Israel of such evil.

23 “If a young woman who is a virgin is engaged (legally betrothed) to a man, and another man finds her in the city and is intimate with her, 24 then you shall bring them both out to the gate of that city and stone them to death–the young woman because she did not cry out for help [though she was] in the city, and the man because he has violated his neighbor’s [promised] wife. So you shall remove the evil from among you. 

25 “But if the man meets the engaged woman out in the country, and he rapes her, then only the man must die. 26 Do nothing to the young woman; she has committed no crime worthy of death. She is as innocent as a murder victim. 27 Since the man raped her out in the country, it must be assumed that she screamed, but there was no one to rescue her.

28 “Suppose a man has intercourse with a young woman who is a virgin but is not engaged to be married. If they are discovered, 29 he must pay her father fifty pieces of silver. Then he must marry the young woman because he violated her, and he may never divorce her as long as he lives.

30 “A man must not marry his father’s former wife, for this would violate his father.

Midday Lesson

Adultery, rape, and a bride price

[Please note that the following lesson includes the subject of rape, and thus may be distressing for some readers, especially those who have been the victims of sexual abuse and rape. Please also note that the Bible does not condone sexual assault, sexual abuse, or rape.]

Today’s passage from Deuteronomy lays out Old Testament “regulations regarding marriage, promiscuity, rape, adultery, and incestuous adultery.” [9] “While these regulations reflect a certain inequality between men and women customary in the ancient world, they represent a considerable advance in protecting the rights and dignity of women. In adultery, [for example] both the man and the woman are to be stoned; in the rape of a betrothed woman, the man [only] would be punished by death.” [10]

Consensual Adultery 

“Adultery (consensual intercourse between a married person and someone other than that person’s spouse) was a crime (5:18) and punishable by death. It was destructive to the social order, defiled the land, and had to be purged (cf Lv 18: 20, 24–30). The Code of Hammurabi (c 1728– 1686 BC) ruled that adulterers were to be bound and thrown into a river.” [11]

“God established marriage as the foundation and cornerstone of society. He created sex for marriage, to bind husband and wife together into one flesh and to provide a mother and father to the children conceived through marital sex. Sexual sin outside of that relationship harms all those involved and weakens the foundation of society. Such sin is certainly forgivable through the blood of Jesus Christ, but life is more full when we follow God’s design.” [12]

Verses 23-24 say, If a young woman who is a virgin is engaged to a man, and another man finds her in the city and is intimate with her, then you shall bring them both out to the gate of that city and stone them to death–the young woman because she did not cry out for help [though she was] in the city, and the man because he has violated his neighbor’s [promised] wife. These verses presuppose consensual, adulterous intercourse. They are not intended as a means to determine whether a rape occurred. Crying out was an indication that a rape had occurred. For example, in 2 Samuel 13:19, it says of Tamar, following her rape, So Tamar put dust on her head [in grief] and tore the long-sleeved robe which she had on, and she put her hand on her head and went away crying out [for help]. Thus, reference to crying out in verse 24 is simply used as an indicator that the sexual encounter had been consensual.

Rape

Verses 24-25 say, But if the man meets the engaged woman out in the country, and he rapes her, then only the man must die. Do nothing to the young woman; she has committed no crime worthy of death. She is as innocent as a murder victim. Since the man raped her out in the country, it must be assumed that she screamed, but there was no one to rescue her. Here we find that “the woman was presumed innocent by virtue of the isolated place where she could not receive help no matter how much she resisted.” [13] “In the absence of witnesses (“in the open field”), the presumption must be that the woman is the victim, and so guiltless.” [14]

A Bride Price

Verses 28-28 say, Suppose a man has intercourse with a young woman who is a virgin but is not engaged to be married. If they are discovered, he must pay her father fifty pieces of silver. Then he must marry the young woman because he violated her, and he may never divorce her as long as he lives. “The regulations in Deuteronomy 22:13-29 were written at a different time to ours, and for a culture with different values than ours. Though it sounds harsh to modern westerners who hold to romantic notions about marriage, the Deuteronomy 22:28-29 law was for the benefit of the wronged woman because she couldn’t be abused and then discarded. Tamar begged her half-brother Ammon, who had just raped her, not to send her away. But he cruelly, and illegally, refused (2 Sam. 13:16). Her pain at being abused and then discarded is heart-wrenching.” [15] “This law warned young men that they would be made responsible for their actions. A young woman was not freely available merely because she was not betrothed.” [16]

“Paying a price for a wife sounds as though women were property, and the idea that women were the property of men in Israelite society is often bandied about, but this may not have been the lived experience for many women at that time. In the Hebrew Bible, we see that women had a voice and agency within their homes, and some women had positions of influence in their communities (Deborah, Miriam, Huldah, etc). Moreover, several women are mentioned as owning their own property (Job’s daughters, Achsah, Sheerah, etc).” [17]

“Nevertheless, Israelite society was patriarchal, and the regulations in Deuteronomy 22:13ff are given with the understanding that violating a woman is an offence and an insult to the men who are most closely related to the victim.” [18] “Yet, unlike in many other patriarchal societies where a raped woman could be killed because of the dishonour associated with the crime against her, innocent Israelite women were not blamed and they were not punished (cf. Deut. 22:25ff). Moreover, in Deuteronomy 22:26, rape is equated with murder, not adultery.” [19] According to Rev. George Athas, this “acknowledges the profound effect that rape has: it imposes a kind of living death on the victim.” [20]

In review: “Laws are given concerning marriage, promiscuity, adultery, rape, and incestuous adultery. These laws protect individuals, the integrity of the family unit, and the social stability and purity of the nation. Our God has blessed us with the institution of marriage to provide family, companionship, and a God-pleasing outlet for sexual desire. Such an intimate union is in fact a reflection of the oneness God establishes with us through faith in the relationship of the Church (the Bride) with Christ (the Bridegroom) who “gave Himself up for her ” ( Eph 5: 25 ). • Lord Jesus Christ, keep us faithful and pure that our lives and marriages may honor You. Where we have fallen , forgive us our sins, enable us to forgive one another, and restore us by Your grace to wholeness. Amen.” [21]


A Third Century Prayer for the Peace of Christ’s Flock 

O Sovereign and Almighty Lord, bless all Your people and all Your flock. Give peace, Your help, Your love unto us, Your servants the sheep of Your fold, that we may be united in the bond of peace and love, one body and one spirit, in one hope of our calling, in Your Divine and boundless love; for the sake of Jesus Christ, the great Shepherd of the sheep. AMEN. 

—Liturgy of St. Mark [22]

Short Verse

“He who carries God in his heart bears Heaven with him wherever he goes.”

St. Ignatius of Loyola

[23]

Eventide Reading: 1 Corinthians 7:1-16

Guidance for the married

1 Now concerning the matters about which you wrote: “It is good for a man not to have sexual relations with a woman.” 2 But because of the temptation to sexual immorality, each man should have his own wife and each woman her own husband. 3 The husband should give to his wife her conjugal rights, and likewise the wife to her husband. 4 For the wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband does. Likewise the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does. 5 Do not deprive one another, except perhaps by agreement for a limited time, that you may devote yourselves to prayer; but then come together again, so that Satan may not tempt you because of your lack of self-control.

6 Now as a concession, not a command, I say this. 7 I wish that all were as I myself am. But each has his own gift from God, one of one kind and one of another.

8 To the unmarried and the widows I say that it is good for them to remain single, as I am. 9 But if they cannot exercise self-control, they should marry. For it is better to marry than to burn with passion.

10 To the married I give this charge (not I, but the Lord): the wife should not separate from her husband 11 (but if she does, she should remain unmarried or else be reconciled to her husband), and the husband should not divorce his wife.

12 To the rest I say (I, not the Lord) that if any brother has a wife who is an unbeliever, and she consents to live with him, he should not divorce her. 13 If any woman has a husband who is an unbeliever, and he consents to live with her, she should not divorce him. 14 For the unbelieving husband is made holy because of his wife, and the unbelieving wife is made holy because of her husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean, but as it is, they are holy. 15 But if the unbelieving partner separates, let it be so. In such cases the brother or sister is not enslaved. God has called you to peace. 16For how do you know, wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, husband, whether you will save your wife?

Eventide Lesson

Principles for Marriage

“In chapter 7 Paul specifically discusses three life choices that many Christians believed were affected by baptism with an advantage on one side: marriage or virginity (7:1–7, 16), fidelity to Judaism signified by circumcision versus uncircumcision (vv. 18–20), and slavery vs. manumission (vv. 21–24).” [24] Today’s passage from chapter 7 deals with the first: marriage and virginity. “According to 1 Corinthians 7, a specific question arose concerning whether married Christians ought to remain married.” [25] For some early Corinthian Christians, an understanding of baptism as, in part, an “initiation into the eschatological community seemed to imply that the baptized should renounce the constraints and responsibilities of marriage. Jesus’s opposition to divorce is first attested here (7:10, 11; see Mt 5:31–32; 19–12; Mk 10:2–12). There was [a] question whether a Christian married to an unbeliever could or should remain in the marriage.” [26]

“Paul’s general advice is to ‘remain in the state in which you were called’ (see 7:17, 20, 24). His reasoning is that the time is short (7:29, 31), too short for unnecessary social entanglements. It is debatable whether Paul believed literally that the eschatological end was imminent or whether this was his way to see all of life as contingent on the absolute power and will of God. Although Christians are ‘in’ the world, they are not ‘of’ it as John says (Jn 17:14–16). The particular circumstances of believers do not interfere with or lessen the effect of the new status of their identity in Christ. Christians have always sensed the need to express the implications of their new identity as baptized persons with an appropriate way of life.” [27] “Indeed, the hope for a new society of equals was one of the reasons Christianity was so appealing to many ‘minority’ groups, including women, slaves, and others who lacked status in the Greco-Roman world.” [28]

“Paul agreed with a position held by some in Corinth, that ‘it is a good thing . . . not to touch a woman’ (1 Cor 7:1) [and] he acknowledged his own preference for celibacy that leaves one ‘free of anxieties’ (7:32).” [29] However, “responding to those who challenge the right of Christians to marry, he drew on the word of Jesus regarding the indissolubility of marriage (1 Cor 7:10–11). Yet Paul added an exception… In the case of unwillingness of the unbelieving spouse to remain married to a baptized person, they may separate. Furthermore, Paul applied the exception to both men and women, giving women the same rights as men.” [30] “Paul’s insistence on parity of sexual rights between husband and wife throughout this chapter is remarkable in a male-dominated age.” [31]

“References to Paul’s own behavior (1 Cor 7:7–8) suggest that his celibate way of life and his preaching to the unmarried (cf. 1 Cor 7:25–35) have given some the impression that asceticism within marriage, i.e., suspension of normal sexual relations, would be a laudable ideal. Paul points to their experience of widespread immorality to caution them against overestimating their own strength (1 Cor 7:2); as individuals they may not have the particular gift that makes such asceticism feasible (1 Cor 7:7) and hence are to abide by the principle to be explained [later] in 1 Cor 7:17–24.” [32] 

“It seems that some Christians in Corinth were advocating asceticism in sexual matters… suggesting that in this matter as in others the Corinthians have seized upon a genuine value but are exaggerating or distorting it in some way. Once again Paul calls them to a more correct perspective and a better sense of their own limitations.” [33]

More specifically, Paul was “replying to suggestions in the Corinthians’ letter that all sex should be avoided even between spouses, vv. 2–5; that single persons should not marry, vv. 8–9; that the married should divorce, vv. 10–16; that engaged couples should not marry, vv. 36–38. For single people he prefers that they should so remain (like himself), but does not insist.” [34]

Is celibacy better than marriage? What is the benefit of marriage for a disciple of Christ? What is its cost? “Marriage provides a healthy outlet to our human sex drive, allows mutual encouragement, exposes unbelieving spouses to the faith, and lets children be raised in the faith. The greatest costs are extra worries and concerns that can distract a Christian from kingdom work—especially in times of persecution like the Christians faced in the Roman world.” [35] 

Whether married or single, Paul reminds us that both marriage and singleness (celibacy) are spiritual gifts. No matter our relational circumstances, each of us has much to contribute to the work of the Lord and His Church.

Compline Prayer

O Lord, you surrounded your people at night as a pillar of fire to defend them from the plans of the Pharaoh and the captains of his army. Also send us your Holy Spirit from your flaming, jeweled, and awesome throne to take care of your people. Defend us this night with the shield of faith, that we may not fear the terrors of the night; for you reign forever and ever. Amen. 

  • Antiphonary of Bangor [36]

Citations:

[1] Episcopal Church. (1979). Collects. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 234). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

[2] Episcopal Church. (1979). The Great Litany. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 152). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated

[3] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). Psalms. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 788-789). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[4] Augustine. (2019). Psalms. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 1736). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[5] Caesarius of Arles. (2019). Psalms. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 1736). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[6] Potts, J. M. (2020). Third Century Prayers. In Prayers of the Early Church (Kindle, pp. 27). essay. 

[7] Forward Movement. (2013). Intercessions. In Prayers for All Occasions (Kindle ed., pp. 516). Cincinnati, OH: Forward Movement.

[8] TOP 25 quotes by Francis OF ASSISI (of 117): A-Z Quotes. A. (n.d.). Retrieved September 20, 2021, from https://www.azquotes.com/author/616-Francis_of_Assisi

[9] Palmer, W. (2020). Deuteronomy 22:13-30. In Books of the Bible Study Questions: Deuteronomy (PDF ed., pp. 33). St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. Retrieved at: https://communication.cph.org/cs/c/?cta_guid=0d970425-f643-403c-ae00-180f3043ec74&signature=AAH58kHHI_mOiz0nYwvvknmPuGF859SFog&pageId=12528320923&placement_guid=483b552e-69ce-4b0c-8f88-8f8e19b29578&click=d13843e0-9340-4543-855d-be186f27d1e1&hsutk=b63eb4971a63591bed02e597a8add3bc&canon=https%3A%2F%2Fcommunication.cph.org%2Fbooks-of-the-bible-study-questions%2Fthank-you&portal_id=487463&redirect_url=APefjpFoWpmG75DBAsvArVmpSGO2MKnG3Ow6RBP9bhqwsyp5_nZiTovOc2iGOaNepmHqYmR22OqM6f1M-X6bX6c0u4vt-kiko6QnIhVlowjsElsl3khqaodMg4Wbx6Lh8adCsXrkVcSCQq2n7Ysfx404ReVr2y1sh33RJsrb8QPiPndM7s_WLELdF8MSkLVOTLP6RFw7-t1OflgEJwXKDh94mOeE7WeENs-KlEbN8tjM5mvz4NaG3SiumlXhHG1nG9T2vEJW8w4i\&__hstc=25153893.b63eb4971a63591bed02e597a8add3bc.1631613806632.1631613806632.1631613806632.1&__hssc=25153893.1.1631613806634&__hsfp=1550108260&contentType=standard-page

[10] Cole, J. (Ed.). (2015). Deuteronomy. In Didache Bible: With commentaries based on the Catechism of the Catholic Church (Kindle ed., p. 571). Downers Grove, IL: Midwest Theological Forum,, Ignatius Press.

[11] A., E. E. (2016). Deuteronomy. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 1418). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

[12] Palmer, W. (2020). Deuteronomy 22:13-30. In Books of the Bible Study Questions: Deuteronomy (PDF ed., pp. 33). St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. Retrieved at: https://communication.cph.org/cs/c/?cta_guid=0d970425-f643-403c-ae00-180f3043ec74&signature=AAH58kHHI_mOiz0nYwvvknmPuGF859SFog&pageId=12528320923&placement_guid=483b552e-69ce-4b0c-8f88-8f8e19b29578&click=d13843e0-9340-4543-855d-be186f27d1e1&hsutk=b63eb4971a63591bed02e597a8add3bc&canon=https%3A%2F%2Fcommunication.cph.org%2Fbooks-of-the-bible-study-questions%2Fthank-you&portal_id=487463&redirect_url=APefjpFoWpmG75DBAsvArVmpSGO2MKnG3Ow6RBP9bhqwsyp5_nZiTovOc2iGOaNepmHqYmR22OqM6f1M-X6bX6c0u4vt-kiko6QnIhVlowjsElsl3khqaodMg4Wbx6Lh8adCsXrkVcSCQq2n7Ysfx404ReVr2y1sh33RJsrb8QPiPndM7s_WLELdF8MSkLVOTLP6RFw7-t1OflgEJwXKDh94mOeE7WeENs-KlEbN8tjM5mvz4NaG3SiumlXhHG1nG9T2vEJW8w4i\&__hstc=25153893.b63eb4971a63591bed02e597a8add3bc.1631613806632.1631613806632.1631613806632.1&__hssc=25153893.1.1631613806634&__hsfp=1550108260&contentType=standard-page

[13] Radmacher, E. D., Allen, R. B., & House, H. W. (2018). Deuteronomy. In Holy Bible Nkjv Study Bible, Personal Size: Full-color Edition (Kindle, Third, p. 1280). essay, Thomas Nelson, Inc. 

[14] Senior, D., Collins, J. J., & Getty-Sullivan, M. A. (2016). Deuteronomy. In The Catholic study Bible: The New American Bible, revised edition, translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources (Third ed., p. 1670). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[15] Mowczko, M. (2021, September 13). Deuteronomy 22:28-29 and marrying your rapist. Marg Mowczko. Retrieved September 20, 2021, from https://margmowczko.com/deuteronomy-22-marrying-your-rapist/

[16] Radmacher, E. D., Allen, R. B., & House, H. W. (2018). Deuteronomy. In Holy Bible Nkjv Study Bible, Personal Size: Full-color Edition (Kindle, Third, p. 1280). essay, Thomas Nelson, Inc. 

[17] Mowczko, M. (2021, September 13). Deuteronomy 22:28-29 and marrying your rapist. Marg Mowczko. Retrieved September 20, 2021, from https://margmowczko.com/deuteronomy-22-marrying-your-rapist/

[18] Ibid. 17

[19] Ibid. 17

[20] Ibid. 17

[21] A., E. E. (2016). Deuteronomy. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 1419). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

[22] Potts, J. M. (2020). Third Century Prayers. In Prayers of the Early Church (Kindle, pp. 27). essay. 

[23] St. Ignatius of Loyola. (n.d.). TOP 25 quotes By Ignatius OF Loyola (of 97): A-Z Quotes. A. Retrieved September 20, 2021, from https://www.azquotes.com/author/9092-Ignatius_of_Loyola

[24] Senior, D., Collins, J. J., & Getty-Sullivan, M. A. (2016). 1 Corinthinas. In The Catholic study Bible: The New American Bible, revised edition, translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources (Third ed., p. 972). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[25] Ibid. 24

[26] Ibid. 24

[27] Ibid. 24, P. 973

[28] Ibid. 24, P. 973

[29] Ibid. 24, P. 973

[30] Ibid. 24, P. 973

[31] Wansbrough, H. (2019). 1 Corinthians. In The revised New jerusalem bible: Study Edition (Kindle, pp. 2171–2171). essay, Random House. 

[32] Senior, D., Collins, J. J., & Getty-Sullivan, M. A. (2016). 1 Corinthians. In The Catholic study Bible: The New American Bible, revised edition, translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources (Third ed., p. 4932). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[33] Wansbrough, H. (2019). 1 Corinthians. In The revised New jerusalem bible: Study Edition (Kindle, pp. 2171–2171). essay, Random House. 

[34] Palmer, W. (2018). 1 Corinthians 7. In Books of the Bible Study Questions: 1 Corinthians (PDF ed., pp. 9). St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. Retrieved at: https://communication.cph.org/cs/c/?cta_guid=f91b9cd9-a26b-4961-9128-e0041ad74a74&signature=AAH58kHRV540bMHxdK6GioStdoAe4_Ivzw&pageId=12528320923&placement_guid=c1d98cf6-d1b8-4acc-9a06-3467095b650a&click=551371cd-fcdf-476c-a660-d91d877c7ade&hsutk=b63eb4971a63591bed02e597a8add3bc&canon=https%3A%2F%2Fcommunication.cph.org%2Fbooks-of-the-bible-study-questions%2Fthank-you&portal_id=487463&redirect_url=APefjpHCRUusjCCiBs5TnoWTnl_NdSKrNDQK31kldG2B7NFAFtOXWuHtcGc1xoHA5lPrRkJ9MImX7KM95hYsg2-rSSZLij8KCyNwuaG8Pla8bTsG3-6CWj3mzGQhtNAcJXR8nJgYXxNCCgs3NiNyg9FqBtZzZKi4SdDSfTIVgxIRa9FuPbQztRwXDRKlEW2Yrzcsp9t6y_8rxQltCuTUSNSGUvBA5uFvjw&__hstc=25153893.b63eb4971a63591bed02e597a8add3bc.1631613806632.1631613806632.1631613806632.1&__hssc=25153893.1.1631613806634&__hsfp=1550108260&contentType=standard-page

[35] Cole, J. (Ed.). (2015). 1 Corinthians. In Didache Bible: With commentaries based on the Catechism of the Catholic Church (Kindle ed., p. 3479). Downers Grove, IL: Midwest Theological Forum,, Ignatius Press.

[36] Stratman, P. C. (Trans.). (2018). Office of Vespers. In The Antiphonary of Bangor and The Divine Offices of Bangor: The Liturgy of Hours of the ancient Irish church (Kindle, p. 147). essay, Crossway. 

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