September 6 Devotional (2021)

September 6, 2021
Ordinary Time

Today’s Readings:  Isaiah 38:9-20 / Joshua 6:1-24 / Hebrews 11:29—12:2

A prayer written in the journal of Alan Gardiner, Missionary and Founder of the South American Mission Society, who we remember on September 6th

“Grant O Lord, that we may be instrumental in commencing this great and blessed work; but should Thou see fit in Thy providence to hedge up our way, and that we should even languish and die here, I beseech Thee to raise up others and to send forth labourers into this harvest. Let it be seen, for the manifestation of Thy Glory and Grace that nothing is too hard for Thee…”

Invocation

O Lord open thou my lips 

And my mouth shall declare thy praise. 

O God + come to my assistance; 

O Lord, make haste to help me. 

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, * and to the Holy Ghost: As it was in the beginning, is now, * and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

Collect for Labor Day

Almighty God, you have so linked our lives one with another that all we do affects, for good or ill, all other lives: So guide us in the work we do, that we may do it not for self alone, but for the common good; and, as we seek a proper return for our own labor, make us mindful of the rightful aspirations of other workers, and arouse our concern for those who are out of work; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen. [1]

Proper of the Week

Grant us, O Lord, to trust in you with all our hearts; for, as you always resist the proud who confide in their own strength, so you never forsake those who make their boast of your mercy; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever. Amen. [2]

Hymn

“Come Labor on”

By Jane Borthwick (1859, 1863)

Representative Text:

1 Come, labor on.

Who dares stand idle on the harvest plain

while all around us waves the golden grain?

And to each servant does the Master say,

“Go work today.”

2 Come, labor on.

Claim the high calling angels cannot share;

to young and old the gospel gladness bear.

Redeem the time; its hours too swiftly fly.

The night draws nigh.

3 Come, labor on.

Cast off all gloomy doubt and faithless fear!

No arm so weak but may do service here.

Though feeble agents, may we all fulfill

God’s righteous will.

4 Come, labor on.

No time for rest, till glows the western sky,

till the long shadows o’er our pathway lie,

and a glad sound comes with the setting sun,

“Well done, well done!”


Morning Prayer

Eternal Father, help me to remember that I, in Christ, am a new creation; the old has passed away, behold the new has come. All this is from you, my God, who through Christ reconciled me to himself and gave to the world the ministry of reconciliation. Thanks be to God!

(Based on 2 Corinthians 5:17-18)

Short Verse

On this day the LORD has acted;* we will rejoice and be glad in it. 

Psalm 118:24

Morning Reading: Isaiah 38:9-20

Prayer for health

9 A writing of Hezekiah king of Judah, after he had been sick and had recovered from his sickness:

10 I said, In the middle of my days

I must depart;

I am consigned to the gates of Sheol

for the rest of my years.

11 I said, I shall not see the LORD,

the LORD in the land of the living;

I shall look on man no more

among the inhabitants of the world.

12 My dwelling is plucked up and removed from me

like a shepherd’s tent;

like a weaver I have rolled up my life;

he cuts me off from the loom;

from day to night you bring me to an end;

13 I calmed myself until morning;

like a lion he breaks all my bones;

from day to night you bring me to an end.

14 Like a swallow or a crane I chirp;

I moan like a dove.

My eyes are weary with looking upward.

O Lord, I am oppressed; be my pledge of safety!

15 What shall I say? For he has spoken to me,

and he himself has done it.

I walk slowly all my years

because of the bitterness of my soul.

16 O Lord, by these things men live,

and in all these is the life of my spirit.

Oh restore me to health and make me live!

17 Behold, it was for my welfare

that I had great bitterness;

but in love you have delivered my life

from the pit of destruction,

for you have cast all my sins

behind your back.

18 For Sheol does not thank you;

death does not praise you;

those who go down to the pit do not hope

for your faithfulness.

19 The living, the living, he thanks you,

as I do this day;

the father makes known to the children

your faithfulness.

20 The LORD will save me,

and we will play my music on stringed instruments

all the days of our lives,

at the house of the LORD.

Morning Lesson

“The Lord is not indifferent to the tears of the one who suffers.”

“Hezekiah was struck by a potentially fatal illness while in his prime. Therefore, he prayed for God’s mercy, who extended his life another fifteen years, confirming this by reversing the path of the shadow on a sundial. His prayer of thanksgiving reaffirmed his faith and trust in the Lord.” [4]

“Hezekiah knew that God had spared his life, so in his poem Hezekiah praises God. Hezekiah recognized the good that came from his bitter experience. The next time you have difficult struggles, pray for God’s help to gain something beneficial from them.” [5]

In verse 19, “Hezekiah spoke of the significance of passing the joy of the Lord from generation to generation. The heritage of our faith has come to us because of faithful men and women who have carried God’s message to us across the centuries. Do you share with your children or other young people the excitement of your relationship with God?” [6]

“The Lord is not indifferent to the tears of the one who suffers, and he responds, consoles and saves, although not always in ways that coincide with what we expect. It is what Hezekiah confessed at the end [v. 20], encouraging all to hope, to pray, to have confidence, with the certainty that God would not abandon his creatures” (John Paul II). [8]

Isaiah 38 Commentary from the Early Church 

Verses 18-19

“[Those who live in a godly manner] and participate in such goodness are the only ones able to give glory to God, and that is what really constitutes a feast and a holy day. For the feast is not indulging in a lot of food or dressing up in lovely clothes. It is not enjoying days of leisure. It is acknowledging God and offering thanksgiving and songs of praise to him. But this belongs to the saints alone, who live in Christ. . . . That is the way it was with Hezekiah, who was delivered from death and therefore praised God, saying, ‘Those who are in hell cannot praise you; the dead cannot bless you; but the living shall bless you, as I do today.’” 

  • Athanasius, Festal Letter 7.3. [8]

Midday Prayer

For the Answering of Prayer

Almighty God, who hast promised to hear the petitions of those who ask in thy Son’s Name: We beseech thee mercifully to incline thine ear to us who have now made our prayers and supplications unto thee; and grant that those things which we have faithfully asked according to thy will, may effectually be obtained, to the relief of our necessity, and to the setting forth of thy glory; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. [9]

Short Verse

…O LORD my God, how excellent is your greatness!* You are clothed with majesty and splendor. 

Psalm 104:1
[42]

Midday Reading: Joshua 6:1-24

The Israelites conquer Jericho

1 Now Jericho was shut up inside and outside because of the people of Israel. None went out, and none came in. 2 And the LORD said to Joshua, “See, I have given Jericho into your hand, with its king and mighty men of valor. 3 You shall march around the city, all the men of war going around the city once. Thus shall you do for six days. 4 Seven priests shall bear seven trumpets of rams’ horns before the ark. On the seventh day you shall march around the city seven times, and the priests shall blow the trumpets. 5 And when they make a long blast with the ram’s horn, when you hear the sound of the trumpet, then all the people shall shout with a great shout, and the wall of the city will fall down flat, and the people shall go up, everyone straight before him.” 6 So Joshua the son of Nun called the priests and said to them, “Take up the ark of the covenant and let seven priests bear seven trumpets of rams’ horns before the ark of the LORD.” 7 And he said to the people, “Go forward. March around the city and let the armed men pass on before the ark of the LORD.”

8 And just as Joshua had commanded the people, the seven priests bearing the seven trumpets of rams’ horns before the LORD went forward, blowing the trumpets, with the ark of the covenant of the LORD following them. 9 The armed men were walking before the priests who were blowing the trumpets, and the rear guard was walking after the ark, while the trumpets blew continually. 10 But Joshua commanded the people, “You shall not shout or make your voice heard, neither shall any word go out of your mouth, until the day I tell you to shout. Then you shall shout.” 11 So he caused the ark of the LORD to circle the city, going about it once. And they came into the camp and spent the night in the camp.

12 Then Joshua rose early in the morning, and the priests took up the ark of the LORD. 13 And the seven priests bearing the seven trumpets of rams’ horns before the ark of the LORD walked on, and they blew the trumpets continually. And the armed men were walking before them, and the rear guard was walking after the ark of the LORD, while the trumpets blew continually. 14 And the second day they marched around the city once, and returned into the camp. So they did for six days.

15 On the seventh day they rose early, at the dawn of day, and marched around the city in the same manner seven times. It was only on that day that they marched around the city seven times. 16 And at the seventh time, when the priests had blown the trumpets, Joshua said to the people, “Shout, for the LORD has given you the city. 17 And the city and all that is within it shall be devoted to the LORD for destruction. Only Rahab the prostitute and all who are with her in her house shall live, because she hid the messengers whom we sent. 18 But you, keep yourselves from the things devoted to destruction, lest when you have devoted them you take any of the devoted things and make the camp of Israel a thing for destruction and bring trouble upon it. 19 But all silver and gold, and every vessel of bronze and iron, are holy to the LORD; they shall go into the treasury of the LORD.” 20 So the people shouted, and the trumpets were blown. As soon as the people heard the sound of the trumpet, the people shouted a great shout, and the wall fell down flat, so that the people went up into the city, every man straight before him, and they captured the city. 21 Then they devoted all in the city to destruction, both men and women, young and old, oxen, sheep, and donkeys, with the edge of the sword.

22 But to the two men who had spied out the land, Joshua said, “Go into the prostitute’s house and bring out from there the woman and all who belong to her, as you swore to her.” 23 So the young men who had been spies went in and brought out Rahab and her father and mother and brothers and all who belonged to her. And they brought all her relatives and put them outside the camp of Israel. 24 And they burned the city with fire, and everything in it. Only the silver and gold, and the vessels of bronze and of iron, they put into the treasury of the house of the LORD. 25 But Rahab the prostitute and her father’s household and all who belonged to her, Joshua saved alive. And she has lived in Israel to this day, because she hid the messengers whom Joshua sent to spy out Jericho.

[43]

Midday Lesson

Jericho’s fall

“The city of Jericho, built thousands of years before Joshua was born, was one of the oldest cities in the world. In some places it had fortified walls up to 25 feet high and 20 feet thick. Soldiers standing guard on top of the walls could see for miles. Jericho was a symbol of military power and strength—the Canaanites considered it invincible.” [10] 

“Israel would attack this city first, and its destruction would put the fear of Israel into the heart of every person in Canaan. The Canaanites saw Israel’s God as a nature god because he parted the Jordan and as a war god because he defeated Sihon and Og. But the Canaanites did not consider him a fortress god—one who could prevail against a walled city. The defeat of Jericho showed not only that Israel’s God was superior to the Canaanite gods but also that he was invincible.” [11]

“God told Joshua [v. 2] that Jericho was already delivered into his hands—the enemy was already defeated! What confidence Joshua must have had as he went into battle! Christians also fight against a defeated enemy. Our enemy, Satan, has been defeated by Christ (Rom 8:37-39; Heb 2:14-15; 1 Jn 3:8). Although we still fight battles every day and sin runs rampant in the world, we have the assurance that the war has already been won. We do not have to be paralyzed by the power of a defeated enemy; we can overcome him through Christ’s power.” [12]

“Why did God give Joshua all these complicated instructions for the battle [vv. 3-5]? Several answers are possible: (1) God was making it undeniably clear that the battle would depend upon him, and not upon Israel’s weapons and expertise. This is why priests carrying the Ark, not soldiers, led the Israelites into battle. (2) God’s method of taking the city accentuated the terror already felt in Jericho (Josh 2:9). (3) This strange military maneuver was a test of the Israelites’ faith and their willingness to follow God completely. The blowing of the horns had a special significance. The same horns used in their religious festivals were to be blown in their battles to remind them that their victory would come from the Lord, not their own military might (Num 10:9).” [13]

“Israel, which prefigures the Church, [had] been made ready. Now the people must act in faith and obedience. The Lord Himself will bring down the walls, which speak of sin and death. He will destroy the enemies and lead the faithful to safely inhabit a world once held captive by darkness.” [14]

“The priests with their sacred trumpets [vv. 7-14] can be seen as representing the Old Testament prophets, who foretell the coming of Christ in Holy Scripture while the rest of the world waits in silence. They are Israel’s spiritual leaders, called to uphold the law and bear witness to God’s covenant promises until Christ appears.” [15]

“Israel walked around the walls of Jericho for seven straight days [v. 15]. One of these had to be the Sabbath Day. Thus, the Israelites broke the Sabbath but were guiltless, for they obeyed Joshua (or Jesus) in doing a good thing. But when Jesus (the true Joshua) healed on the Sabbath, the Pharisees accused Him of breaking the Sabbath and wanted to kill Him. Then He said to them, ‘It is lawful to do good on the Sabbath’ (Mt 12:12).” [16]

The actions of Israel described in verse 21 “must be understood in the context of salvation history. God revealed himself and his will to his people incrementally, bringing them along gradually not only in terms of their knowledge of him but also in their understanding of moral law. The Church, teaching in the name of Christ, forbids any form of genocide, the killing of noncombatants, and mistreatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war. Soldiers have the moral obligation to refuse to perform such gravely evil acts even if ordered to do so.” [17]

“Rahab [v. 22] the harlot was counted as righteous before God for one reason: namely, her hospitality, a demonstration of her genuine faith. But she received no praise for the rest of her behavior. Similarly, the publican was counted as righteous because of his humility, though he received no testimony for anything else. Therefore, one should not fall into despair over failures and shortcomings before God, but demonstrate in some way a genuine repentance and faith” (St. Gregory of Nazianzus). [18]

“Joshua, a type of Jesus Christ, saved Rahab [v. 25] the harlot because of her hospitality, which demonstrated a genuine faith. But the true Jesus said to the chief priests and elders who opposed Him, ‘tax collectors and harlots enter the kingdom of heaven before you (Mt 21:31)” (Cyril of Jerusalem). [19]

“Jericho fell not from military tactics but through an act of God with the obedient cooperation of his people. The procession around the city and the final shout have a certain liturgical quality about them. In their invasion of Jericho, the Israelites left Rahab’s house alone as was promised by the spies. As the Letter to the Hebrews would later recount,’By faith the walls of Jericho fell down after they had been encircled for seven days. By faith Rahab the harlot did not perish with those who were disobedient, because she had given friendly welcome to the spies’ (Heb 11:30-31). [20]

[44]
Joshua 6 Commentary from the Early Church

Verses 2-5 

“I refer to the city destroyed by the eager Joshua, whose own name was changed to delineate his power [see Nm 13:16]. He did not subdue it in the usual military way, by conducting the regular long and weary blockade. No, through God’s help his army in sacred symbolism performed a lustration, brandishing its weapons without using them.”

Verse 8

“[W]e have said that all these things were done then in symbol, for we believe that the priestly trumpets of that age were nothing other than the preaching of the priests of this age, by which we do not cease to announce, with a dreadful sound, something harsh to sinners, to speak of what is dismal, and to strike the ears of evildoers with, as it were, a threatening roar, since no one can resist the sacred sounds and no one can gainsay them. For how could feeling creatures not tremble at the word of God when at that time even unfeeling ones were shaken? And how could human hardheartedness resist what a stone fortification could not withstand?”

Verse 20

“[T]he walls of that city, called Jericho, which in the Hebrew tongue is said to mean moon, fell when they had been encircled seven times by the ark of the covenant. What, then, does the announcement of the kingdom of heaven portend—signified by the encircling of the ark—except that all the battlements of mortal life, that is, all the hope of this world, which is opposed to the hope of the world to come, will be destroyed by the sevenfold gift of the Holy Spirit, working through the free will? For, those walls fell of their own accord, not by any violent push of the ark in its circuit.”

Verse 20

“The consummation of the world will not happen in stages, but suddenly. With this ought to be compared, I think, what was written in Joshua, when by a single sound of a trumpet the crumbling city of Jericho suddenly perished; and like this example Babylon also in the consummation of the age will fall and suddenly be obliterated.”

  • Origen, Homilies on Jeremiah [24]

Eventide Prayer

For Guidance

O God, by whom the meek are guided in judgment, and light riseth up in darkness for the godly: Grant us, in all our doubts and uncertainties, the grace to ask what thou wouldest have us to do, that the Spirit of wisdom may save us from all false choices, and that in thy light we may see light, and in thy straight path may not stumble; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. [25]

Short Verse

Show your goodness, O LORD, to those who are good* and to those who are true of heart. 

Psalm 125:4

Eventide Reading: Hebrews 11:29—12:2

The heroes of faith

29 By faith the people crossed the Red Sea as on dry land, but the Egyptians, when they attempted to do the same, were drowned. 30 By faith the walls of Jericho fell down after they had been encircled for seven days. 31 By faith Rahab the prostitute did not perish with those who were disobedient, because she had given a friendly welcome to the spies.

32 And what more shall I say? For time would fail me to tell of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, of David and Samuel and the prophets— 33 who through faith conquered kingdoms, enforced justice, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, 34 quenched the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, were made strong out of weakness, became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight. 35 Women received back their dead by resurrection. Some were tortured, refusing to accept release, so that they might rise again to a better life. 36 Others suffered mocking and flogging, and even chains and imprisonment. 37 They were stoned, they were sawn in two, they were killed with the sword. They went about in skins of sheep and goats, destitute, afflicted, mistreated— 38 of whom the world was not worthy—wandering about in deserts and mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth.

39 And all these, though commended through their faith, did not receive what was promised, 40 since God had provided something better for us, that apart from us they should not be made perfect.

Jesus, Founder and Perfecter of Our Faith

1 Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, 2 looking to Jesus, the founder and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God.

Eventide Lesson

“True faith is active.”

Our passage from Hebrews begins with a remembrance of the remarkable faith possessed by Rahab and by the Israelites who crossed through the Red Sea. “[T]he people who entered into [the Red Sea] believed and crossed it as if on dry land [v. 29]. On the other hand, the Egyptians went into it without faith and received the reward for their crimes in the midst of it” (Ephrem the Syrian, Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews). [26]

“[W]hen the entire city in which [Rahab] lived fell to ruins at the sounding of the seven trumpets, Rahab and all her house were preserved, through faith in the scarlet sign [v. 31]. So the Lord declared to those who did not receive the Lord—the Pharisees, that is—and to those who despised the scarlet thread, which signified the Passover and the redemption and the exodus from Egypt, that ‘the publicans and the harlots go into the kingdom of heaven before you’ [Mt 21:31]” (St. Irenaeus, Against Heresies 4.20.12). [27] Rahab received from the Israelite spies “the scarlet sign of salvation, a color which is manifestly the color of royalty when considered as a dignity, and, when looked at, the color of blood. Both these features were found in the passion—the Lord was clothed in scarlet, and blood flowed from his side” (St. Hilary of Poitiers, Tractate of the Mysteries 2.9.154–56). [28]

The passage then proceeds with a list (vv. 32-38) of those who through faith conquered kingdoms, enforced justice, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, quenched the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, were made strong out of weakness, became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight (vv. 33-34), along with a “list of martyrdoms and near-martyrdoms” (vv. 35-37). [29] Stopped the mouths of lions (v. 33) likely refers “to Daniel, who survived a night in the lion’s den (cf. Dn 6:16-24).” [30] Quenched power of fire (v. 34) “calls to mind the three young men who were unharmed in the furnace (cf. Dn 3:23-27).” [31] Tortured, refusing to accept release (v. 35) refers to “the woman and her seven sons in the second book of Maccabees [who] suffered terribly at the hands of the pagan Seleucid king Antiochus (cf. 2 Mc 7).” [32] Sawn in two (v. 37) “describes the torturous death suffered by the prophet Isaiah, according to Jewish tradition.” [33] “See how they were in death itself, Daniel encompassed by the lions, the three [young men] abiding in the furnace, the Israelites, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, in diverse temptations; and yet not even so did they despair. For this is faith. When things are turning out adversely, then we ought to believe that nothing adverse is done but all things in due order” (St. Chrysostom, On the Epistle to the Hebrews 27.4). [34] 

“The world despised God’s saints, even though they were truly worthy of praise. Only God counts them worthy through faith to receive His promises.” [35] “Christ’s Incarnation and all He accomplished for us in the flesh redeem[ed] the OT saints, who by faith participate in His Resurrection and His Kingdom.” [36]

The great cloud of witnesses, mentioned in 12:1, “includes not only the OT saints mentioned in ch. 11, but also the saints and martyrs of the Lord in all ages. If they made it, so can we. We persevere by getting rid of sin, the weight which keeps us from heeding the truth; setting as our destination the heavenly city, running the race of faith; and keeping our attention focused on Jesus Christ our Lord and King (12:2). This race is not a sprint but a marathon of endurance: it does not end until we fully enter the age to come (1Co 9:24-27).” [37]

“Christ is both the author [‘founder’, 12:2], that is, the initiator, and the finisher, that is, the perfector [12:2] of faith. He endured the cross in that He voluntarily accepted humiliation and death. We are to imitate His determination and perseverance.” [38] “As in all arts and games, we impress the art upon our mind by looking to our masters, receiving certain rules through our sight, so here also, if we wish to run and to learn to run well, let us look to Christ, even to Jesus, ‘the author and finisher of our faith.’ What is this? He has put the faith within us. For he said to his disciples, ‘You did not choose me, but I chose you’ [Jn 15:16]. . . . He put the beginning into us; he will also put on the end” (St. Chrysostom, On the Epistle to the Hebrews). [39]

“Faith trusts even without sight what God has set forth in His Word. True faith is active in love and is steadfast under persecution. By His resurrection, Christ conquered death and now provides His Holy Spirit to strengthen us. • ‘Lord, be our light when worldly darkness veils us; Lord, be our shield when earthly armor fails us; And in the day when hell itself assails us, Grant us Your peace, Lord.’” [40]

Compline Prayer

O my God, I present myself before Thee at the end of another day, to offer Thee anew the homage of my heart. I humbly adore Thee, my Creator, my Redeemer, and my Judge! I believe in Thee, because Thou art Truth itself; I hope in Thee, because Thou art faithful to Thy promises; I love Thee with my whole heart, because Thou art infinitely worthy of being loved… Enable me, O my God, to return Thee thanks as I ought for all Thine inestimable blessings and favors. Thou hast thought of me, and loved me from all eternity; Thou hast formed me out of nothing; Thou hast delivered up Thy beloved Son to the ignominious death of the Cross for my redemption; Thou hast made me a member of Thy holy Church; Thou hast preserved me from falling into the abyss of eternal misery, when my sins had provoked Thee to punish me; and Thou hast graciously continued to spare me, even though I have not ceased to offend Thee. What return, O my God, can I make for Thine innumerable blessings, and particularly for the favors of this day? O all ye Angels and Saints, unite with me in praising the God of mercies, who is so bountiful to so unworthy a creature.

Amen. [41]


Devotionals compiled/written by S. P. Rogers

Citations:

[1] Episcopal Church. (n.d.). Labor Day. Labor day. https://www.lectionarypage.net/LesserFF/Sep/LaborDay.html

[2] Episcopal Church. (1979). Collect. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 233). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

[3] Author: Jane BorthwickMiss Jane Borthwick, the translator of this hymn and many others. (n.d.). Come, labour on. Hymnary.org. https://hymnary.org/text/come_labor_on

[4] Cole, J. (Ed.). (2015). Isaiah. In Didache Bible: With commentaries based on the Catechism of the Catholic Church (Kindle ed., p. 2111). Downers Grove, IL: Midwest Theological Forum,, Ignatius Press.

[5] Tyndale House Publishers. (2012). Isaiah. In Chronological life application study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 6002). Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Pub.

[6] Ibid. 5

[7] Cole, J. (Ed.). (2015). Isaiah. In Didache Bible: With commentaries based on the Catechism of the Catholic Church (Kindle ed., p. 2111). Downers Grove, IL: Midwest Theological Forum,, Ignatius Press.

[8] Athanasius. (2019). Psalms. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 2032). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[9] Episcopal Church. (1979). Prayers and Thanksgivings. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 834). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

[10] Tyndale House Publishers. (2012). Ezekiel. In Chronological life application study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 5467). Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Pub.

[11] Ibid. 10

[12] Ibid. 10

[13] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). Joshua. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 314). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[14] Ibid. 13

[15] Ibid. 13

[16] Ibid. 13

[17] Cole, J. (Ed.). (2015). Joshua. In Didache Bible: With commentaries based on the Catechism of the Catholic Church (Kindle ed., p. 630). Downers Grove, IL: Midwest Theological Forum,, Ignatius Press.

[18] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). Joshua. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 314). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[19] Ibid. 18

[20] Cole, J. (Ed.). (2015). Joshua. In Didache Bible: With commentaries based on the Catechism of the Catholic Church (Kindle ed., p. 629). Downers Grove, IL: Midwest Theological Forum,, Ignatius Press.

[21] Paulinus of Nola. (2019). Joshua. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 729). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[22] Maximus of Turin. (2019). Joshua. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 729). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[23] Augustine. (2019). Joshua. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 729). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[24] Origen. (2019). Joshua. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 729). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[25] Episcopal Church. (1979). Prayers and Thanksgivings. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 832). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

[26] Ephrem the Syrian. (2019). Hebrews. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 3475). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[27] Irenaeus. (2019). Hebrews. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 3475). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[28] Hilary of Poitiers. (2019). Hebrews. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 3475). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[29] Cole, J. (Ed.). (2015). Hebrews. In Didache Bible: With commentaries based on the Catechism of the Catholic Church (Kindle ed., p. 3711). Downers Grove, IL: Midwest Theological Forum,, Ignatius Press.

[30] Ibid. 29

[31] Ibid. 29

[32] Ibid. 29

[33] Ibid. 29

[34] Chrysostom. (2019). Hebrews. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 3475). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[35] A., E. E. (2016). Hebrews. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 9038). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

[36] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). Hebrews. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1699). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[37] Ibid. 36

[38] Ibid. 36

[39] Chrysostom. (2019). Hebrews. In Ancient faith study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 3477). Nashville: Holman Bible.

[40]  A., E. E. (2016). Hebrews. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 9038). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

[41] 8 Powerful Catholic Evening Prayers. Catholic Gallery. (2018, November 6). https://www.catholicgallery.org/prayers/evening-prayers/

[42] Tyndale House Publishers. (2012). Jericho [Image]. In Chronological life application study Bible (p. 343). Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Pub.

[43] Tyndale House Publishers. (2012). Spy Mission to Jericho [Map]. In Chronological life application study Bible (Kindle ed., p. 7643). Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Pub.

[44] Tyndale House Publishers. (2012). Rahab [Profile]. In Chronological life application study Bible (p. 345). Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Pub.

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