July 30 Devotional (2021)

Let us therefore so travail to understand the Lord’s Supper that we be no cause of the decay of God’s worship…”

A prayer inspired by William Wilberforce, Renewer of Society, who we remember on July 30th

Let thy continual mercy, O Lord, enkindle in thy Church the Never-failing gift of charity, that, following the example of thy servant William Wilberforce, we may have grace to defend the children of the poor, and maintain the cause of those who have no helper; for the sake of him who gave his life for us, thy Son our Savior Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, one God, now and for ever. Amen.


July 30, 2021
Ordinary Time

Today’s Readings:  Exodus 12:43—13:2 / 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 / 1 Corinthians 11:27-34

Invocation 

O Lord open thou my lips. 

And my mouth shall declare thy praise.

Today if you shall hear his voice, harden not your hearts: As in the provocation, according to the day of temptation in the wilderness: where your fathers tempted me, they proved me, and saw my works. 

O come, let us adore Him.

Hymn

“Let us break bread together on our knees”
Representative Text [1]:

1 Let us break bread together on our knees.

Let us break bread together on our knees.

Refrain:

When I fall on my knees with my face to the rising sun,

O Lord have mercy on me.

2 Let us drink wine together on our knees.

Let us drink wine together on our knees. [Refrain]

3 Let us praise God together on our knees.

Let us praise God together on our knees. [Refrain]


Morning Prayer

O Light of Light, O Day-spring bright, 

Co-equal in thy Father’s light: 

Assist us, as with prayer and psalm 

Thy servants break the twilight calm.   

All darkness from our minds dispel, 

And turn to flight the hosts of hell: 

Bid sleepfulness our eyelids fly, 

Lest overwhelmed in sloth we lie.   

Jesu, thy pardon, kind and free, 

Bestow on us who trust in thee: 

And as thy praises we declare, 

O with acceptance hear our prayer.   

O Father, that we ask be done, 

Through Jesus Christ, thine only Son; 

Who, with the Holy Ghost and thee, 

Doth live and reign eternally. Amen. [2]

Short Verse

Happy are the people whose strength is in you!* whose hearts are set on the pilgrims’ way. 

Psalm 84:4
“The Israelites are eating the Passover Lamb”
By Marc Chagall
(source)

Morning Reading: Exodus 12:43—13:2

Directions for the Passover

43 And the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the statute of the Passover: no foreigner shall eat of it, 44 but every slave that is bought for money may eat of it after you have circumcised him. 45 No foreigner or hired worker may eat of it. 46 It shall be eaten in one house; you shall not take any of the flesh outside the house, and you shall not break any of its bones. 47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. 48 If a stranger shall sojourn with you and would keep the Passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised. Then he may come near and keep it; he shall be as a native of the land. But no uncircumcised person shall eat of it. 49 There shall be one law for the native and for the stranger who sojourns among you.”

50 All the people of Israel did just as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron. 51And on that very day the LORD brought the people of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their hosts.

1 The LORD said to Moses, 2 “Consecrate to me all the firstborn. Whatever is the first to open the womb among the people of Israel, both of man and of beast, is mine.”

Morning Lesson

Institution of the Passover

“After the announcement of the final plague, the Lord instruct[ed] Moses concerning celebration of the feasts of Passover and Unleavened Bread (12:1–20). This and subsequent sections (12:21–27, 43–49; 13:3–10), in which the Lord gives further instructions and Moses instructs the people to enact the rites, constitute an etiology for these feasts. They are to be enacted in remembrance of the Lord’s sparing the Israelites’ lives from death and bringing them out of Egypt, but the details given reflect the way in which the feasts were actually celebrated in Israel. In a similar way, the Synoptic Gospel accounts of the Last Supper, which was celebrated during Passover, reflect the words used by early Christians when celebrating the Lord’s Supper (Eucharist) to remember the death and resurrection of Jesus. Early Christians recalled that Jesus was killed during Passover, and understanding his passion, death, and resurrection as a new exodus, they came to portray him as a new and definitive paschal lamb.” [3]

In verses 43-49 of today’s reading from Exodus, we find “regulations concerning those who could partake of the Passover,” the first regulation being that no foreigner or hired worker may eat of it (v. 43). [4] Here referred to are dwellers or settlers “who lived permanently among the Israelites without being received into their religious fellowship.” [5] “If a foreigner living among the Israelites wished to keep the Passover, he was first to be spiritually incorporated into the nation through circumcision (Gn 17:9– 14). Cf 1Co 11:28 for the parallel for participants in the Lord’s Supper.” [6] “No uncircumcised man was to partake (v 48).” [7] “By virtue of a divine call, not through biological descent, Israel became God’s children, predestined to become a blessing to all nations ( Gn 12: 2– 3 ). Slaves [v. 44] were to be included in the Passover celebration via circumcision.” [8]

Verse 46 says You shall not break any of its bones. “The application of these words to Jesus on the cross (Jn 19:36) sees the Paschal lamb as a prophetic type of Christ, sacrificed to free men and women from the bondage of sin. (Cf. also 1 Cor 5:7; 1 Pt 1:19).” [9]

Verse 49 says there shall be one law for the native and for the stranger. Here, we find “the first appearance of the word torah, traditionally translated as ‘law,’ though it can have the broader meaning of ‘teaching’ or ‘instruction.’ Elsewhere, too, it is said that the “alien” is to be accorded the same treatment as the Israelite (e.g., Lv 19:34). [10] 

In Exodus 12:43-51, “the Lord [gave] supplementary regulations concerning the Passover due to the fact that Egyptians and likely other persons (v 38 ) [had] joined themselves to the Israelites. As the Lord brought His people out of the prison of Egypt by His grace, so our Lord Christ, through His crucifixion in our stead, sets people of all nations free from the prison of sin, death, and the devil. • Christ, my Savior, You atoned for all of my sins with Your precious blood. In the Sacrament, You give me Your true body and blood for the forgiveness of sin. May I abide in this new freedom and the blessings of Your precious blood until I reach the promised land. Amen.” [11]

“The Lord will personally guide Israel by His Word on the journey ahead (vv 21–22)… God claimed Israel’s firstborn as His own [Ex 3:1-2] because He rescued them from the 10th plague, making the firstborn a firstfruit offering to the Lord… This consecration, or setting aside, served two functions: (1) Collectively, the firstborn represented all Israel, whom God chose as His own firstborn among the nations (4: 22–23). (2) As individuals, the firstborn were living reminders of this calling in every home (e.g., Joseph and Mary presented Jesus, Mary’s firstborn, at the temple). Scripture describes firstborn sons as receiving a double portion of the inheritance, a special blessing, and headship of the family.” [12]

In Exodus 3:1-2 we see that “the firstborn of Israel belong to the Lord. As our Creator and Savior, Jesus claims each of us as His own. This claim presents a formidable challenge. It means that we must yield our lives to Jesus, consecrating ourselves as living sacrifices to Him (Rm 12: 1– 2). We are not up to the task, but Jesus consecrates us by His precious sacrifice on the cross, which gives us amazing benefits: adoption into His family (Rm 8:15), opportunities to make a genuine difference in this world (Eph 2:10), and the grand expectation of eternity with Him (Php 3:20–21). • I praise You for Your salvation, O Lord, because You chose and consecrated me as Your own. Thank You for Your infinite grace and mercy. Amen.” [13]


Midday Prayer

A Prayer attributed to St. Francis

Lord, make us instruments of your peace. Where there is hatred, let us sow love; where there is injury, pardon; where there is discord, union; where there is doubt, faith; where there is despair, hope; where there is darkness, light; where there is sadness, joy. Grant that we may not so much seek to be consoled as to console; to be understood as to understand; to be loved as to love. For it is in giving that we receive; it is in pardoning that we are pardoned; and it is in dying that we are born to eternal life. Amen. [14]

Short Verse

Look well whether there be any wickedness in me* and lead me in the way that is everlasting. 

Psalm 139:23
“Jesus Holding the Eucharist”
Vintage Holy Card – Anonymous Artist
(source)

Midday Reading: 1 Corinthians 11:23-26

The Lord’s Supper

23 For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread, 24 and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 25 In the same way also he took the cup, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

“Sacrament of Eucharist”
By Laura LaHaye
(source)

Midday Lesson

The Blessed Sacrament

In today’s passage, quoting the words of Christ in Luke 22:19, 20, “St. Paul instruct[ed] the Corinthians concerning the Eucharist.” [15] The Eucharist is a Sacrament, that is, it is a means of grace, “the great means by which the divine life of our souls is nourished and made strong” through the mysterious work of the Holy Spirit. [57]

“As the name signifies, the Eucharist is our thanksgiving. We offer it to God as a token of our thankfulness for the gift of His Son, and as a solemn re-pleading of the sacrifice which His Son offered upon the cross.” [16] “Hence, we call it the Christian Sacrifice.” [17]

“Received (Gr. parelabon) and delivered (v. 23) refer to the transmission of the holy Tradition [that is, the teaching of the Apostles]. These words were part of the Eucharistic celebration in the first century… Remembrance (vv. 24, 25; Gr. anamnesis) is far more than thinking back about something; it is participation in it. In the Eucharist we participate in Christ’s human nature, His body and His blood. The Jews were permitted to eat meat but not blood, for the life is in the blood (Lv 17:11), and life belongs to God. Now the Israel of God, the Church, breaks this fast and feasts, as it were, by eating Christ’s body and drinking His blood in the Divine Liturgy. We proclaim the Lord’s death till He comes (v. 26), for we presently celebrate the Eucharist in Christ’s invisible presence, though one day we will feast with Him face to face in His Kingdom.” [18]

Now, “some two thousand years after Jesus gave Himself ‘for the life of the world (Jn 6:51), there are at least three different interpretations of His words.” [19] Three main views are the Real Presence, Transubstantiation, and Memorialism. 

“‘When the Word is joined to the element or natural substance, it becomes a Sacrament.’ This saying of St. Augustine is so properly and so well put that he has scarcely said anything better. The Word must make a Sacrament out of the element, or else it remains a mere element. Now, it is not the word or ordinance of a prince or emperor. But it is the Word of the grand Majesty, at whose feet all creatures should fall and affirm it is as He says, and accept it with all reverence , fear, and humility.”

[56]
Real Presence 

“For the first thousand years of Christian history, when the Church was visibly one and undivided, the holy gifts of the Body and Blood of Christ were received as just that: His Body and Blood.” [20] “The outward part of this Sacrament is bread and wine; but when these elements are consecrated through the power of the Holy Spirit,” they become the Body and Blood of Christ. [21] “Those who receive the Blessed Sacrament, therefore, receive Christ Himself, the true ‘Bread of Life.'” [22] “Just how our Lord is present in this Sacrament, under the forms of bread and wine, we do not know. But as He Himself uttered the wonderful words, ‘This is My Body – This is My Blood,’ We are bound to believe that He is truly there. It is a real presence and not a mere imaginary presence.” [23] The Church confessed that “this [is] a mystery: The bread is truly His Body, that which is in the cup is truly His Blood, but one cannot say how they become so.” [24] “We must remember, however, that His Body is no longer like our bodies. It was glorified and made spiritual in His resurrection from the dead [and His Ascension], and is therefore spiritual or immaterial.” [25]

“He was the Word that spake it; 

He took the bread and brake it; 

And what that Word did make it; 

I do believe and take it”

John Donne (1572–1631), Divine Poems. On the Sacrament
[36]
Transubstantiation 

“The eleventh and twelfth centuries brought on the scholastic era, the Age of Reason in the West. The Roman Church, which had become separated from the Orthodox Church in 1054, was pressed by the rationalists to define how the transformation [of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ] occurs. They answered with the word transubstantiation, meaning a change of substance. The elements are no longer bread and wine; they are physically changed into bread and blood. The sacrament, which only faith can comprehend, was subjected to a philosophical definition. This second view was unknown in the ancient Church.” [26]

Memorialism 

“Not surprisingly, one of the disagreements between Rome and the sixteenth-century reformers was this issue of transubstantiation.” [27] The most radical of the reformers, who themselves were rationalists, were “unable to accept this explanation of the sacrament.” [28] Ultimately, “they took up the [extreme] opposite view: the gifts are nothing but bread and wine, period. They only represent Christ’s Body and Blood; they have no spiritual reality. This third, symbol-only view helps explain the infrequency with which some Protestants partake of the Eucharist.” [29]

“When thou sittest at an earthly king’s table, to take diligent heed what things are set before thee (Proverbs 23.1). Now so much more at the King of kings’ Table, thou must carefully search and know what dainties are provided for thy soul.”

An Homily of the Worthy Receiving and Reverent Esteeming of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ
[37]
What does the Bible say?

Jesus said “This is My body… this is My blood” (Lk 22:19, 20). He also said, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you” (Jn 6:53). “He never said these gifts merely symbolize His Body and Blood. Critics have charged that Jesus also said of Himself, ‘I am the door’ (Jn 10:7), and He certainly isn’t a seven-foot wooden plank. The flaw in that argument is obvious: at no time has the Church ever believed He was a literal door. But she has always believed that the consecrated gifts of bread and wine are truly His Body and Blood.” [30]

Receiving Worthily

“In order to receive the benefit of this holy Sacrament, we must come to it with the preparation of faith and repentance: firmly believing that we shall receive the grace which is promised, and firmly resolving that we will turn away from our past sins. Together with this resolve, we must also make confession of our sins, and be sorry for them.” [31] For this reason, Confession always precedes Communion in our Eucharist service. “Those who neglect to prepare themselves properly for Holy Communion, not only fail to receive the benefit, but ‘eat and drink condemnation to themselves,’ as St. Paul says. They dishonor the Lord’s Body.” [32]


“In the New Testament, those who receive Christ’s Body and Blood unworthily are said to bring condemnation upon themselves.” [33] In Paul’s first Epistle to the Corinthians, he wrote, “For this reason many are weak and sick among you, and many have died” (1Co 11:30). A mere symbol or reminder “could hardly have the power to cause sickness and death!” [34]

Therefore, as the Anglican Homily entitled, “An Homily of the Worthy Receiving and Reverent Esteeming of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ,” beautifully exhorts us all [35]:

“Let us therefore so travail to understand the Lord’s supper that we be no cause of the decay of God’s worship… But this much he must be sure to hold, that in the supper of the Lord there is no vain ceremony, no bare sign, no untrue figure of a thing absent, but as the Scripture saith: ‘the table of the Lord, the bread and cup of the Lord, the memory of Christ, the annunciation of His death,’ yea, ‘the communion of the body and blood of the Lord’ in a marvelous incorporation, which by the operation of the Holy Ghost, the very bond of our conjunction with Christ, is through faith wrought in the souls of the faithful, whereby not only their souls live to eternal life, but they surely trust to win their bodies a resurrection to immortality. The true understanding of this fruition and union, which is betwixt the body and the head, betwixt the true believers and Christ, the ancient catholic fathers both perceiving themselves and commending to their people, were not afraid to call this supper, some of them: ‘the salve of immortality, a sovereign preservative against death’; other, ‘a deifical communion,’ other, ‘the sweet dainties of our Savior,’ ‘the pledge of eternal health, the defense of faith, the hope of the resurrection,’ other, ‘the food of immortality,’ ‘the healthful grace,’ and ‘the conservatory of everlasting life’…[…] O beloved, wash yourselves with the living waters of God’s Word, whence you may perceive and know both the spiritual food of this costly supper and the happy trustings and effects that the same doth bring with it.”


Eventide Prayer

As the time of day is turning and the night is coming over us, let us pray for the mercy of God, that we may increase in our divine knowledge and renounce the works of darkness; you reign as one God, now and forever. 

  • Antiphonary of Bangor, Collect at First Nocturn [38]
  • Short Verse

    Listen, my God, listen to us.… Relying not on our upright deeds but on your great mercy, we pour out our plea to you. Listen, Lord! Forgive, Lord! Hear, Lord, and act! For your own sake, my God, do not delay—since your city and your people alike bear your name. 

    Daniel 9:18f
    The Triumph of the Eucharist over Philosophy and Science Nova Legis Triumphus. Sketch for the ‘Eucharist’ series of designs. Rubens, Peter Paul (Flemish 1577-1640). Oil on panel, height 16.5 cm, width 21.9 cm, circa 1625-1626. (source)

    Eventide Reading: 1 Corinthians 11:27-34

    Discerning the body of Christ

    27 Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty concerning the body and blood of the Lord. 28 Let a person examine himself, then, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. 29 For anyone who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment on himself. 30 That is why many of you are weak and ill, and some have died. 31 But if we judged ourselves truly, we would not be judged. 32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned along with the world.

    33 So then, my brothers, when you come together to eat, wait for one another— 34 if anyone is hungry, let him eat at home—so that when you come together it will not be for judgment. About the other things I will give directions when I come.

    “The Body of Christ in the Eucharist” 
    (contemporary), 
    By Jerry Bacik
    (source)

    Eventide Lesson

    Rightly receiving Christ’s body and blood

    “There were divisions among the Corinthians on social and economic grounds. Wealthy Christians apparently hosted great meals at which the poor were either not welcomed or were subject to embarrassment. Some became drunk while others went away hungry (11:20–22, 33–34). Paul says that these meals are not the Lord’s Supper and that the Corinthians are eating and drinking their own condemnation (see 11:27–29). Within the context of the discussion of abuses in the community’s liturgical celebrations, Paul inserts his account of the institution of the Last Supper in order to put the troubles in the proper context. This is the earliest written account of the institution of the Lord’s Supper in the New Testament.” [39]

    “Saint Paul, blaming the Corinthians for the prophaning of the Lord’s Supper, concludeth that ignorance both of the thing itself and the signification thereof, was the cause of their abuse, for they came thither irreverently, not discerning the Lord’s Body.”

    An Homily of the Worthy Receiving and Reverent Esteeming of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ
    [40]

    “To receive Christ’s body and blood in an unworthy manner means coming to Him with hidden immorality (6:18-20), disunity (v. 18), doctrinal heresy (v. 19), or disorder (vv. 21, 22), failing to see the gifts of God as holy things for holy people.” [41] “If the Corinthians eat and drink unworthily… they will have to answer for the body and blood, i.e., will be guilty of a sin against the Lord himself (cf. 1 Cor 8:12).” [42]

    Receiving the Eucharist in an unworthy manner also includes “not recognizing what is given and received in the ‘body and blood.’ Were Paul discussing exclusively the Church as the Body of Christ, there would have been no mention of the blood. However, eating and drinking in an unworthy manner also includes not recognizing the sacramental presence of Christ’s body and blood.” [43] Furthermore, “abusing the Sacrament by making it an occasion for sin, not for its intended purpose of forgiveness and unity makes one guilty and liable to judgment (vv 29–32).” [44]

    The Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life. Drink this in remembrance that Christ’s Blood was shed for thee, and be thankful.

    Book of Common Prayer, Holy Eucharist
    [54]

    “We prepare ourselves for the Eucharist by examining ourselves. This includes confessing our sins and being reconciled to one another in the sacrament of repentance (Mt 5:23-26)… Being ‘worthy’ does not mean being sinless, but being cleansed.” [45] “This does not require a perfect, sinless life before reception of the Sacrament but a desire to receive the blessings of the Sacrament, including forgiveness and being formed with fellow recipients as the Body of Christ.” [46] It is not legalism but commitment to walk in righteousness before God.” [47] “Paul illustrates pastoral oversight in the examination by rebuking their sin and returning them to their catechesis,” (v 23). [48]

    “Discerning” the body (verse 29) “includes recognizing the ‘true body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ… It also implies a desire for the ‘forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation’ offered in the Sacrament. Finally, in the context of vv 17– 34, it also includes a desire to end the human divisions that destroy the unity of the Body of Christ created through the Sacrament.” [49]

    The Supper of the Lord is not only a sign of the love that Christians ought to have among themselves one to another; but rather it is a Sacrament of our Redemption by Christ’s death: insomuch that to such as rightly, worthily, and with faith, receive the same, the Bread which we break is a partaking of the Body of Christ; and likewise the Cup of Blessing is a partaking of the Blood of Christ.

    Articles of Religion: Article XVIII. Of the Lord’s Supper, Book of Common Prayer
    [55]

    “There is such power in the body and blood of Christ communicated to us in the eating and drinking of His gifts (Jn 6:54-56) that to do so in willful disregard of the Lord could result in sickness and even death.” [50] “The same food that should have strengthened their faith instead caused physical harm. The effect of benefit to one person and curse to another is similar to the way Paul describes the Gospel itself (2Co 2:14–16). Physical punishment follows spiritual problems, just as it did for Israel (10:1–13).” [51]

    “The Corinthians [had] turned the Sacrament into a supper of their own making. As a result, the community of believers formed by the Gospel and the Sacrament [was] being harmed and individuals [were] falling under God’s judgment. Recalling Christ’s own institution of the Supper, Paul remind[ed] the Corinthians to recognize what God has offered in the Sacrament: the body and blood of Christ, the forgiveness of sins, and through it the union of the Body of Christ, the Church, gathered around the altar… • Forgive, O Lord, the dullness that too frequently overcomes us as You draw us to Your Table. Remind us of the blessings of forgiveness and salvation You provide for us there. Send faithful pastors who will admonish our wrongs, remind us of Your love in Christ, and encourage us to receive the forgiveness brought to us in Your Sacrament. Unite us in love and fellowship with those whom You have redeemed who join us at Your Table. Amen.” [52]

    Concluding Prayer of the Church

    Preserve me from the dismal sleep of sin, and quiet every earthly and wicked thought within me. Give me sweet repose, free from every carnal and devilish imagination. Amen.

  • Lancelot Andrewes [53]

  • Devotionals compiled/written by S.P. Rogers

    Citations:

    [1] Let Us Break Bread Together. Hymnary.org. (n.d.). https://hymnary.org/text/let_us_break_bread_together_on_our_knees

    [2] Bellarmine, G. (2021). Matins. In The Roman Breviary in English, in Order, Every Day for April, May, and June 2021 (Kindle ed., p. 3593). Christian Books Today.

    [3] Senior, D., Collins, J. J., & Getty-Sullivan, M. A. (2016). Exodus. In The Catholic study Bible: The New American Bible, revised edition, translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources (Third ed., p. 269). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    [4] A., E. E. (2016). Exodus. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 827). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

    [5] Ibid. 4

    [6] Ibid. 4

    [7] Ibid. 4

    [8] Ibid. 4

    [9] Senior, D., Collins, J. J., & Getty-Sullivan, M. A. (2016). Exodus. In The Catholic study Bible: The New American Bible, revised edition, translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources (Third ed., p. 1377). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    [10] Ibid. 9

    [11] A., E. E. (2016). Exodus. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 827). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

    [12] Ibid. 10, P. 827-828

    [13] Ibid. 10, P. 828

    [14] Episcopal Church. (1979). Prayers and Thanksgivings. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 833). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

    [15] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). The Eucharist. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1595). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    [16] Haughwout, L. M. (1920). Chapter XIII: The Eucharist, or Holy Communion. In The ways and teachings of the church: A one year course of lessons for pupils of confirmation age (Ebook ed., p. 50). Milwaukee, WI: Morehouse Publishing.

    [17] Haughwout, L. M. (1920). Chapter XIV: The Eucharist (Continued), or Holy Communion. In The ways and teachings of the church: A one year course of lessons for pupils of confirmation age (Ebook ed., p. 52). Milwaukee, WI: Morehouse Publishing.

    [18] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). 1 Corinthians. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1594). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    [19] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). The Eucharist. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1595). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    [20] Ibid. 19

    [21] Haughwout, L. M. (1920). The Holy Sacraments. In The ways and teachings of the church: A one year course of lessons for pupils of confirmation age (Ebook ed., p. 98). Milwaukee, WI: Morehouse Publishing.

    [22] Ibid. 21

    [23] Ibid. 21, P. 98-99

    [24] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). The Eucharist. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1595). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    [25] Haughwout, L. M. (1920). The Holy Sacraments. In The ways and teachings of the church: A one year course of lessons for pupils of confirmation age (Ebook ed., p. 99). Milwaukee, WI: Morehouse Publishing.

    [26] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). The Eucharist. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1595). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    [27] Ibid. 26

    [28] Ibid. 26

    [29] Ibid. 26

    [30] Ibid. 26

    [31] Haughwout, L. M. (1920). The Holy Sacraments. In The ways and teachings of the church: A one year course of lessons for pupils of confirmation age (Ebook ed., p. 99). Milwaukee, WI: Morehouse Publishing.

    [32] Ibid. 31

    [33] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). The Eucharist. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1595). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    [34] Ibid. 33

    [35] Bray, G. L. (2016). An Homily of the Worthy Receiving and Reverent Esteeming of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ. In The books of homilies: A critical edition (Ebook ed., p. 478-479). Cambridge: James Clarke.

    [36] Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, July 7). Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real_presence_of_Christ_in_the_Eucharist#Anglican_view

    [37] Bray, G. L. (2016). An Homily of the Worthy Receiving and Reverent Esteeming of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ. In The books of homilies: A critical edition (Ebook ed., p. 475). Cambridge: James Clarke.

    [38] Stratman, P. (2001). Evening Prayers. In Prayers from the Ancient Celtic Church (Kindle ed., p. 18). Rossway.

    [39] Senior, D., Collins, J. J., & Getty-Sullivan, M. A. (2016). 1 Corinthians. In The Catholic study Bible: The New American Bible, revised edition, translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources (Third ed., p. 977). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    [40] Bray, G. L. (2016). An Homily of the Worthy Receiving and Reverent Esteeming of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ. In The books of homilies: A critical edition (Ebook ed., p. 476). Cambridge: James Clarke.

    [41] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). 1 Corinthians. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1594). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    [42] Senior, D., Collins, J. J., & Getty-Sullivan, M. A. (2016). 1 Corinthians. In The Catholic study Bible: The New American Bible, revised edition, translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources (Third ed., p. 4940). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    [43] A., E. E. (2016). 1 Corinthians. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 8401). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

    [44] Ibid. 43

    [45] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). 1 Corinthians. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1594). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    [46] A., E. E. (2016). 1 Corinthians. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 8402). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

    [47] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). 1 Corinthians. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1594). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    [48] A., E. E. (2016). 1 Corinthians. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 8402). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

    [49] Ibid. 48

    [50] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). 1 Corinthians. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1594). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

    [51] A., E. E. (2016). 1 Corinthians. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 8402). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

    [52] Ibid. 51, P. 8403

    [53] Andrewes, Lancelot. The Private Devotions and Manual for the Sick of Launcelot Andrews (Kindle ed., p. 2672). Unknown. Kindle Edition.

    [54] Episcopal Church. (1979). Holy Eucharist. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 338). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

    [55] Episcopal Church. (1979). Articles of Religion. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 873). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

    [56] A., E. E. (2016). 1 Corinthians. In The Lutheran study Bible: English standard version (Kindle ed., pp. 8400). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

    [57] Haughwout, L. M. (1920). Chapter XIII: The Eucharist, or Holy Communion. In The ways and teachings of the church: A one year course of lessons for pupils of confirmation age (Ebook ed., p. 50). Milwaukee, WI: Morehouse Publishing.

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