December 17 Devotional (2020)

December 17, 2020
Third Week of Advent

Today’s readings: Psalm 89:1-4, 19-26; 2 Samuel 6:1-11; Hebrews 1:1-4


O God, make speed to save us.
O Lord, make haste to help us.

The Invitatory

Our King and Savior now draws near: come, let us adore him.

Glorify the Lord, you angels and all powers of the Lord, *

    O heavens and all waters above the heavens.

Sun and moon and stars of the sky, glorify the Lord, *

    praise him and highly exalt him for ever.

🕇 Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit: 

as it was in the beginning, is now, and will be for ever. Alleluia! [1]

Opening Prayer

Stir up your power, O Lord, and with great might come among us; and, because we are sorely hindered by our sins, let your bountiful grace and mercy speedily help and deliver us; through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with you and the Holy Spirit, be honor and glory now and for ever. Amen.† [2]

The Hymn 

“O heavenly Word, eternal light”

(Translated by John Mason Neale)

1 O Heavenly Word, Eternal Light,

Begotten of the Father’s might,

Who, in these latter days, art born

For succor to a world forlorn;

2 Our hearts enlighten from above,

And kindle with Thine own true love;

That we, who hear Thy call to-day,

May cast earth’s vanities away.

3 And when as Judge Thou drawest nigh,

The secrets of all hearts to try;

When sinners meet their awful doom,

And saints attain their heavenly home;

4 O let us not, for evil past,

Be driven from Thy face at last;

But with the blessed evermore

Behold Thee, love Thee, and adore. [3]

Antiphon 

Out of Zion shall come the Lord almighty: to save His people. 

Out of Zion shall the Lord come to reign: great is His name, Emmanuel. [4]

“Sing Out Your Joy” 
By Jean Blackmer 
(source)

Morning Reading: Psalm 89:1-4, 19-26

I sing of your love

I will sing of your steadfast love, O Lord, forever;

with my mouth I will proclaim your faithfulness to all generations.

I declare that your steadfast love is established forever;

your faithfulness is as firm as the heavens.

You said, “I have made a covenant with my chosen one,

I have sworn to my servant David:

‘I will establish your descendants forever,

and build your throne for all generations.’”    Selah

Then you spoke in a vision to your faithful one, and said:

“I have set the crown on one who is mighty,

I have exalted one chosen from the people.

I have found my servant David;

with my holy oil I have anointed him;

my hand shall always remain with him;

my arm also shall strengthen him.

The enemy shall not outwit him,

the wicked shall not humble him.

I will crush his foes before him

and strike down those who hate him.

My faithfulness and steadfast love shall be with him;

and in my name his horn shall be exalted.

I will set his hand on the sea

and his right hand on the rivers.

He shall cry to me, ‘You are my Father,

my God, and the Rock of my salvation!’

The Small Verse

The glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.

(Isaiah 40:5)

Morning Prayer

O God, Our God, 

We look to You for the light,

And You awaken us from sound sleep;

Deliver our waking spirits,

So that being roused from our beds,

We may remember that we are surrounded by You;

Who reigns forever. Amen. [5]

The Blessing

And the blessing of God Almighty, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, be upon you and remain with you for ever. Amen. [38]


A prayer inspired by Dorothy Sayers, who we remember on December 17th

Almighty God, who gave to your servant Dorothy L Sayers special Gifts of grace to understand and teach the truth as it is in Christ Jesus: Grant that by this teaching we may know you, the one true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent; who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.


O God, make speed to save us.
O Lord, make haste to help us.

The Invitatory

Glorify the Lord, O chill and cold, *

    drops of dew and flakes of snow.

Frost and cold, ice and sleet, glorify the Lord, *

    praise him and highly exalt him for ever.

🕇 Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit: 

as it was in the beginning, is now, and will be for ever. Alleluia! [6]

Antiphon 

The Lord is our Lawgiver;   the Lord is our King: He will come and save us. 

Behold, this is our God; and I will prepare Him an habitation: My father’s God, and I will exalt Him. [7]

“Transfer of the Ark of the Covenant by David Singing and Dancing” 
16th Century (artist unknown) 
(source)

Midday Reading: 2 Samuel 6:1-11

The advent of the ark of the Lord

The Ark Brought to Jerusalem

1 David again gathered all the chosen men of Israel, thirty thousand. 2 And David arose and went with all the people who were with him from Baale-judah to bring up from there the ark of God, which is called by the name of the LORD of hosts who sits enthroned on the cherubim. 3 And they carried the ark of God on a new cart and brought it out of the house of Abinadab, which was on the hill. And Uzzah and Ahio, the sons of Abinadab, were driving the new cart, 4 with the ark of God,b and Ahio went before the ark.

Uzzah and the Ark

5 And David and all the house of Israel were celebrating before the LORD, with songsc and lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. 6 And when they came to the threshing floor of Nacon, Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God and took hold of it, for the oxen stumbled. 7 And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Uzzah, and God struck him down there because of his error, and he died there beside the ark of God. 8 And David was angry because the LORD had broken out against Uzzah. And that place is called Perez-uzzahd to this day. 9 And David was afraid of the LORD that day, and he said, “How can the ark of the LORD come to me?” 10 So David was not willing to take the ark of the LORD into the city of David. But David took it aside to the house of Obed-edom the Gittite. 11 And the ark of the LORD remained in the house of Obed-edom the Gittite three months, and the LORD blessed Obed-edom and all his household.

Midday Lesson

Jerusalem established as the primary sanctuary

About 2 Samuel:

“The books that we call 1 and 2 Samuel were originally one book. The division into two was the work of those responsible for the Septuagint, the third-century bc Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. Perhaps the translators thought it was necessary to make two shorter books out of one long one. The division was introduced into the Hebrew Bible in the sixteenth century and has become standard ever since. Ending 1 Samuel with the death of Saul seems to make sense until the reader realizes that this division breaks up the story of David’s rise to the throne. The story of the succession to David, which begins in 2 Samuel 9 is interrupted by extraneous material in 2 Samuel 21–24 and is not completed until 1 Kings 1–2.” [8]

“The books of Samuel are so named because the early rabbis believed the prophet wrote 1 Samuel 1–25. They held that the rest of 1 Samuel and the whole of 2 Samuel were the work of the prophets Nathan and Gad on the basis of 1 Chronicles 29:29. Modern scholarship ascribes the books of Samuel in their present form to the anonymous author of the Deuteronomistic History of Israel, which begins with the book of Joshua and continues through 2 Kings. This author brought together several works such as the Saul Cycle (1 Sm 8–15), the story of David’s Rise (1 Sm 16–31), the Ark Narrative (1 Sm 4:2–7:1) and the Succession Narrative (2 Sm 9–20; 1 Kgs 1–2) to tell the story of the rise of the monarchy in ancient Israel. Some modern historians suggest that it is not possible to use the books of Samuel to reconstruct the early history of the Israelite monarchy since the archaeological record does not support the image of David’s kingdom as presented in 2 Samuel. The purpose of the Deuteronomistic History was homiletical, not historiographic. The Deuteronomists sought to give the people of Judah hope for the future rather than information about the past.” [9]

“The stories in the books of Samuel revolve around three characters: Samuel (1 Sm 1–25), Saul (1 Sm 9–2 Sm 2), and David (1 Sm 10–2 Sm 24). The stories of these three figures overlap and are supplemented with stories about the ark, Jerusalem, and other members of the royal family. Through most of 1 Samuel, the story moves toward the eventual accession of David to the throne of Israel. In 2 Samuel, the story describes the clear move toward religious and political centralization in Jerusalem. The books also reveal the political and religious opposition to the attempt to center all power in the Davidic dynasty and in Jerusalem. Of course, the move to establish a dynasty and concentrate all political power in the royal house had serious political and economic repercussions, and these too unfold in the book. The story of Israel as it establishes a monarchy is a fascinating tale of a social, political, and economic innovation that could advance only by overcoming the religious restraints that flowed from the belief that the only king of Israel was the Lord. Finally, though the stories seem to focus on three great figures in Samuel, Saul, and David, there is an impressive list of characters—David’s wives and children, his generals, priests and prophets, Saul’s son Jonathan, and Jonathan’s crippled son Meribbaal—all of whom have critical roles in the origin of the Israelite monarchy as it unfolds. Also, the “little people” such as Hannah (1 Sm 1), the “man of God” who announced the fall of the house of Eli (1 Sm 2:27–36), the woman of Tekoa (2 Sm 14), and Shimei (2 Sm 16) affect the lives of the great personages of the books of Samuel in most critical ways. But it is important to remember that for the author of the Deuteronomistic History, the most important character in the story of Israel in its land is the Lord, Israel’s patron deity, even though God’s action is sometimes subtle and unnoticed. For example, in the story of the succession to David (2 Sm 9–20 and 1 Kgs 1–2), God is mentioned explicitly only three times.” [10]

On today’s reading:

“The ark [was] now to be brought up to Jerusalem from Gibeon (see 1Ch 13:1-14). It [had] been in the care of Eleazar (see 1 Sam 7:1). This will help unify Judah and Israel by establishing Jerusalem as the primary sanctuary.” [11]

“Another step in marking the legitimacy of David’s accession to kingship was the transfer of the ark to Jerusalem. Michal’s negative reaction to David’s dancing before the ark suggests the displacement of Saul’s family by that of David. The housing of the ark in David’s city underscores the centralizing tendencies of the monarchy, which accrues all political, military, and religious authority to itself. This attempt to make human authority absolute will ultimately lead to the undoing of the monarchy and the national state.” [12]

“Contact with the holy was fatal. When Uzzah placed his hand on the ark to steady it, he died. David is fearful lest the ark enter Jerusalem. Instead, it is placed in the house of Obed-Edom (Abedarra), a Philistine loyal to David, for three months. Obed-Edom means literally, ‘servant of Edom’ (see 1Ch 3:13, 14). His house and all his possessions are blessed by the presence of the ark.” [13]

Antiphon 

The Lord our God is at hand: watch ya therefore in your hearts.

Turn Thee again, Lord, a little: and delay not to come unto Thy servants. [14]

Midday Prayer 

The Lord was known to them—Alleluia! 

In the breaking of the bread—Alleluia! 

The bread that we break is the body of our Lord Jesus Christ—Alleluia! 

The cup of blessing that we bless—Alleluia! 

Is the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ—Alleluia! 

For the forgiveness of our sins—Alleluia! 

Let your mercy be upon us—Alleluia! 

Even as we hope in you–Alleluia! 

The Lord was known to them—Alleluia! 

In the breaking of the bread—Alleluia! 

(Lorrha-Stowe Missal, Eighth century) [15]


O God, make speed to save us.
O Lord, make haste to help us.

The Invitatory

Glorify the Lord, O nights and days, *

    O shining light and enfolding dark.

Storm clouds and thunderbolts, glorify the Lord, *

    praise him and highly exalt him for ever.

🕇 Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit: 

as it was in the beginning, is now, and will be for ever. Alleluia! [16]

December 17th Great Antiphon

“Radiance” 
By Eduardo Rodriguez Calzado 
(source)

Evening Reading: Hebrews 1:1-4

In the last days God speaks by His Son

The Supremacy of God’s Son

1 Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. 3 He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs.

Evening Lesson

The radiance of the glory of God

About Hebrews:

“In the early centuries, several differing opinions circulated as to who wrote Hebrews. By the fourth century most witnesses ascribed Hebrews to St. Paul, including St. John Chrysostom (d. AD 407) and St. Athanasius (d. AD 373). Church historian Eusebius (d. c. AD 340) included Hebrews in His list of Paul’s epistles, but noted that Rome rejected the letter because it was not Pauline. A Council at Carthage (AD 397) canonized Hebrews as one of fourteen epistles of Paul… [M]ost biblical scholars today agree authorship of the letter is uncertain.” [18]

“Hebrews is not a real letter but a sermon. The best way to experience Hebrews is by reading it out loud from beginning to end. Subtle points of Greek rhetoric—such as the alliteration in the opening verses—will still escape the contemporary reader. But oral recitation helps to catch the sermonic rhythms of Hebrews, its use of ‘we’ and ‘you’ (so natural to the sermon), and its alternating pattern of exposition and exhortation. Note, for example, how the opening argument of 1:5–14 leads naturally to the “therefore, we must attend all the more” in 2:1–5. Reading straight through also enables the reader to grasp the powerful argument that is the outstanding characteristic of this early Christian writing.” [19]

“Hebrews has significantly shaped the liturgy, doctrine, and spirituality of the church. Although other New Testament writings speak of Jesus’s death as a sacrifice, Hebrews’ unique reflection on Melchizedek (chap. 7) and on Jesus as the Great High Priest influenced the development of Catholic liturgy. Hebrews’ insistence on Jesus’s full divinity and equally full participation in human nature contributed to the understanding of Jesus’s identity as God’s Son (1–2). And Hebrews’ vision of faith as a pilgrimage toward God (11–12) created a symbolic framework for the Christian understanding of discipleship as a “journey.” For all its riches, Hebrews resists easy assimilation for two reasons: the first is that it presents a sustained argument from beginning to end; the second is that its symbols are hard to understand. Dealing with these difficulties clears the way to more intelligent and satisfactory reading.” [20]

“Some parts of the New Testament, such as the Gospel parables, can be read apart from their original context and still make sense. But each part of Hebrews plays a role in a complicated interplay of argument and explanation concerning Jesus and Christian life. Hebrews resists being excerpted. It uses a form of argument, found both in Greek philosophy and rabbinic Judaism, called ‘from the lesser to the greater.’ The argument goes, ‘If something is true in a smaller matter, it is even more true in an analogous greater matter.’ In Hebrews, the contrast is between the partial revelation of God in the past through angels, law, and priesthood, and the perfect revelation “in the last of these days” through God’s Son, Jesus, between that former ‘lesser’ salvation and the present “greater” salvation.” [21]

“The argument in Hebrews has a practical aim. The real point is the contrast between the response to God’s word by God’s people of the past, and the response demanded of believers today. A greater blessing and hope require a greater degree of obedience and loyalty, just as disobedience carries a greater penalty. The stakes are higher all around.” [22]

“The symbols of Hebrews are sufficiently strange to shake any assumption that the New Testament world was ‘just like ours.’ Hebrews demands of its readers, for example, a far more sophisticated grasp of Scripture than that possessed by most Christians today. Much of its argument, in fact, is based on complex modes of scriptural interpretation that, while strange to us, were common in the first century. The version of Scripture used by Hebrews (as by other New Testament writings) was the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures known as the Septuagint, and its citations and allusions are from that version. This reading guide gives some assistance in following Hebrews’ use of Scripture by providing complete Scripture references. Citations in the text are flagged with small letters; passages are identified at the bottom of each page. To fully appreciate Hebrews’ virtuosity, study the citations in their original context as well as how Hebrews turns them to fit its argument (as in 10:5–7).” [23]

“Hebrews’ view of the world is different from that of present-day readers in an even more fundamental sense. Hebrews works within a philosophical tradition called Platonism, which saw a great gulf between the spiritual realm and the material world. Spiritual things are eternal, unchanging; material things are transitory. As a result, spiritual things are both more real and better than the material. For Platonic Jews and Christians, the “spiritual” and “material” realms were understood in terms of “heaven” and “earth.” [24]

“This is the framework for grasping Hebrews’ point about the superiority of Jesus’s priesthood. By his resurrection, Jesus entered heaven, where he is a ‘priest forever’ (5:6), in contrast to the Jewish priesthood, which could only be temporary. Likewise the “heavenly sanctuary” is superior to the physical tent of worship described in Scripture (8–9). The symbolism at times becomes dense and requires patience to disentangle, but the basic point is clear. The human Messiah Jesus now shares God’s life in heaven. His priesthood is therefore both the ultimate and eternal “source of salvation” to others (5:9).” [25]

“The original hearers of this sermon had experienced the loss of property as well as social stigma (10:32–34). They were tempted to seek a more stable basis for hope than that offered by a crucified messiah. Hebrews addresses their longing for stability by offering the hope for ‘a better homeland, a heavenly one’ (11:16). The first readers’ experience can be translated into that of every age: all of us in various ways experience loss, shame, desperation, alienation, despair. Hebrews’ message to us is as pertinent as it was to them: “Oh, that today you would hear his voice: Harden not your hearts” (4:7). We also are called to go on pilgrimage through our troubled circumstances, looking to Jesus, who is still and always the “leader and perfecter of faith” (12:2).” [26]

On today’s reading:

The first four verses of Hebrews “provide an introductory summary to 1:1-10:18. The new covenant is superior to the old, for the old is incomplete and preparatory whereas the new is complete and final… the new man enters into the heavenly realm through Christ and is glorified (see Php 2:5-11 for a close parallel).” [27]

In time past and to the fathers (v. 1) are contrasted with in these last days and to us (v. 2). In OT times God spoke constantly through the Holy Spirit in the Law and the prophets, leading His people into greater truth. Now He speaks directly, through His own incarnate Son. The fathers are the leaders of Israel and representative of all the spiritual ancestors of New Israel.” [28]

Through whom also He made the worlds (v. 2; see Jn 1:3) and upholding all things by the word of His power (v. 3; see Col 1:16, 17): These two phrases reveal the Son as God acting in the world. The Lord Jesus Christ is (1) the One who created the universe, together with the Father and the Holy Spirit, and is therefore (2) the One who sustains the Creation and has absolute authority over it. It is natural, then, that the Son, as both God and Man, is heir of all things (v. 2). If the sons of Abraham hoped to be heirs of the promised land, the sons of Christ can hope to be heirs of the whole universe.” [29]

“The first half of v. 3 is quoted verbatim in the Liturgy of St. Basil the Great, The brightness of His glory expresses the Son’s nature, His origin from and identity of nature with the Father. He is the Father’s brightness because He is begotten from the Father beyond time and without change. Thus, the Nicene Creed speaks of ‘Light of Light.’ As the Son does not exist without radiating light, so the Father does not exist without His Son.” [30]

“Thus, the Son reflects His Father’s glory in this world. The unapproachable light of divinity, the divine energy (1Ti 6:16; 1Pt 2:9; 1Jn 1:7), is approachable only in the incarnate Christ (Jn 12:36). God’s brightness, though it had been experienced at the burning bush (Ex 3:2-4), known by Israel (Ex 10:23; 13:21), and spoken of by the prophets (Ps  36:9; 104:2; Is 9:1; 10:17; Hab 3:4), is especially revealed in Christ’s birth (Lk 1:79; 2:32; Jn 1:4-9), the Transfiguration (Mt 17:2), and the Resurrection.” [31]

“The express image of His person (Gr. hypostasis) expresses the Son’s Person as being distinct from the Father. The Son is the perfect and eternal ‘icon’ of the Father. Thus, the personal distinction of God as Trinity is known only through Him (see Jn 14:9). No one knows the Father but through the Son.” [32]

“Having conquered sin and death, the Son sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, a reference to the Father, showing Christ’s exaltation as Man.” [33]

Having become so much better than the angels, with regard to their role in the old covenant, refers to Christ’s human nature. The name inherited is an open declaration that this Man is the Son of God. In Hebrew this name is ‘Son’; in Php 2:11 it is ‘Lord.’” [34]

Antiphon 

Rejoice ye with Jerusalem: and be glad with her for ever, all ye that love her. [35]

Vespers Prayer 

O Lord God Almighty, as you have taught us to call the evening, the morning, and the noonday one day; and have made the sun to know its going down: Dispel the darkness of our hearts, that by your brightness we may know you to be the true God and eternal light, living and reigning for ever and ever. Amen. [36]

The Small Verse

Glory be to him whose power, working in us, can do infinitely more than we can ask or imagine; glory be to him from generation to generation in the Church and in Christ Jesus for ever and ever. Amen. 

(Ephesians 3:20–21)

The Concluding Prayers of the Church

A Compline Prayer:

Before the ending of the day, 

Creator of the world, we pray 

That with thy wonted favor thou 

Wouldst be our guard and keeper now. 

From all ill dreams defend our eyes, 

From nightly fears and fantasies; 

Tread under foot our ghostly foe, 

That no pollution we may know. 

O Father, that we ask be done, 

Through Jesus Christ, thine only Son; 

Who, with the Holy Ghost and thee, 

Doth live and reign eternally. 

Amen. [37]


Devotionals compiled/written by S.P. Rogers

Citations:

[1] Episcopal Church. (1979). Daily Office: Daily Morning Prayer: Rite Two. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 80 and 88). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

[2] Tickle, P. (2006). Advent. In The divine hours: Prayers for Autumn and Wintertime (Kindle ed., vol. 2, p. 360). New York, NY: Image Books.

[3] Translator: John Mason NealeJohn M. Neale’s life is a study in contrasts: born into an evangelical home. (n.d.). O Heavenly Word, Eternal Light. Retrieved December 08, 2020, from https://hymnary.org/text/o_heavenly_word_eternal_light

[4] Episcopal Church. (1911). Proper of Seasons. In Breviary offices from Lauds to Compline inclusive: Translated from the Sarum Book and Supplemented from Gallican and Monastic Uses (Ebook ed., Printed For The Society Of S. Margaret, Boston, U.S., pp. 111). New York, NY: J. Pott &.

[5] Stratman, P. (2001). Morning Prayers. In Prayers from the Ancient Celtic Church (Kindle ed., p. 16). Rossway.

[6] Episcopal Church. (1979). Daily Office: Daily Morning Prayer: Rite Two. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 80 and 88). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

[7] Episcopal Church. (1911). Proper of Seasons. In Breviary offices from Lauds to Compline inclusive: Translated from the Sarum Book and Supplemented from Gallican and Monastic Uses (Ebook ed., Printed For The Society Of S. Margaret, Boston, U.S., pp. 111). New York, NY: J. Pott &.

[8] Senior, D., Collins, J. J., & Getty-Sullivan, M. A. (2016). 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel. In The Catholic study Bible: The New American Bible, revised edition, translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources (Third ed., p. 390). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[9] Ibid. 8

[10] Ibid. 8, P 390-391

[11] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). 2 Kingdoms. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 416). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[12] Senior, D., Collins, J. J., & Getty-Sullivan, M. A. (2016). 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel. In The Catholic study Bible: The New American Bible, revised edition, translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources (Third ed., p. 408). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[13] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). 2 Kingdoms. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 416). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[14] Episcopal Church. (1911). Proper of Seasons. In Breviary offices from Lauds to Compline inclusive: Translated from the Sarum Book and Supplemented from Gallican and Monastic Uses (Ebook ed., Printed For The Society Of S. Margaret, Boston, U.S., pp. 111). New York, NY: J. Pott &.

[15] Stratman, P. (2001). The Divine Service. In Prayers from the Ancient Celtic Church (Kindle ed., p. 64). Rossway.

[16] Episcopal Church. (1979). Daily Office: Daily Morning Prayer: Rite Two. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 80 and 89). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.

[17] Episcopal Church. (1911). Proper of Seasons. In Breviary offices from Lauds to Compline inclusive: Translated from the Sarum Book and Supplemented from Gallican and Monastic Uses (Ebook ed., Printed For The Society Of S. Margaret, Boston, U.S., pp.109). New York, NY: J. Pott &.

[18] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). Hebrews. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1683). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[19] Senior, D., Collins, J. J., & Getty-Sullivan, M. A. (2016). Hebrews. In The Catholic study Bible: The New American Bible, revised edition, translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources (Third ed., p. 1060). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[20] Ibid. 19

[21] Ibid. 19

[22] Ibid. 19

[23] Ibid. 19, P. 1061

[24] Ibid. 19, P. 1061

[25] Ibid. 19, P. 1062

[26] Ibid. 19, P. 1062

[27] Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology (2008). Hebrews. In The Orthodox study Bible (p. 1684). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

[28] Ibid. 27

[29] Ibid. 27

[30] Ibid. 27

[31] Ibid. 27

[32] Ibid. 27

[33] Ibid. 27

[34] Ibid. 27

[35] Episcopal Church. (1911). Proper of Seasons. In Breviary offices from Lauds to Compline inclusive: Translated from the Sarum Book and Supplemented from Gallican and Monastic Uses (Ebook ed., Printed For The Society Of S. Margaret, Boston, U.S., pp.111). New York, NY: J. Pott &

[36] Episcopal Church. (1979). Daily Office: Order for Evening Worship. In The Book of common prayer: And administration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of the church, according to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Together with the psalter, or, Psalms of David (pp. 110). New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.


[37] Bellarmine, G. (2020). December 6 Compline. In The Roman Breviary in English, in Order, Every Day for October, November, December 2020 (Kindle ed., p. 3325). Christian Books Today.

[38] The Episcopal Church. (2018). Seasonal Blessings. In The Book of Occasional Services (PDF ed., p. 8). Then Episcopal Church. Retrieved November December 15, 2020, from https://episcopalchurch.org/files/lm_book_of_occasional_services_2018.pdf

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